Trafficking in human beings is a social problem of our time. Among the major violations of human rights in the world, today is the actual crime that has many names: “white slavery”, “human trafficking”, “trafficking in persons”. Human trafficking is a global problem that affects the lives of millions of people in almost every country of the world, and which deprives them of their human dignity. As one of the most disgusting crimes in the world, human trafficking is misleading and makes a sacrifice of women, men and children from all over the world, every day causing them to be exploited. Although the most known form of human trafficking is sexual exploitation, people are also trafficked for forced labor, as armipotence or donors for illegal transplantation of organs.
Human trafficking is a global phenomenon. It greatly affects the country in a state of political and economic transition or post-conflict stress, which basically is the country of origin for criminal proceedings universal human trafficking. This phenomenon also affects both the economically more developed countries of destination and countries of transit. People who live in difficult conditions, are attracted by opportunity to improve their life in richer and more developed countries, at the same time in the destination countries the demand for low-paid workers in irregular employment sectors, as well as legal employment sectors with low wages are increasing.
Traffickers relate to people as commodities, as things that can be exploited, something that can be traded for profit. In Europe, the majority of convicted traffickers – are male, although the proportion of women involved in this criminal activity is also quite large in comparison to their involvement in other crimes, as some criminal gangs consider women more effective weapon to lure victims, who are at the initial stage trust women more. Job recruiter or operator is also one way of enabling women victims themselves avoid that trap, that trafficking prepares them.
Save Your Time with JetWriters
Get high quality custom written essay just for $10
Crime, as a rule, begins with the fact that traffickers offer their future victims attractive employment opportunities abroad. In many cases, the victim becomes aware of the false nature of these agreements only after its introduction in the country of destination, when her passport is taken, physical and mental abuse take place, employers force person to return money spent on paperwork, visas and tickets. Next, the dependence of the victim is increased by the scheme pre-fabricated debts, which account for the money spent brothel owner on illegal acquisition, accommodation, meals. Thus a person is in a planned debt bondage, which is constantly increasing. Added thereto flimsy fines and value of each resale to another owner. Traffickers use various methods to intimidate and control his victim – physical violence, imprisonment, as well as the various mechanisms of the psychological and financial control. Control methods include: debt bondage; confiscation of passports; insulation; threats of violence against the victims and their family members; victims of Finance control. Those victims of human trafficking, paying a terrible price – the physical and psychological trauma, disease, loss of relationships with family and loved ones, emotional trauma, drug addiction, AIDS.
The term “human trafficking” evolved over the centuries and transformed in light of changing eras, development and humanization of society and the revision of the existing moral canons. The phenomenon of buying and selling people can not claim to be a new phenomenon for mankind, but today it is called sometimes like that. The problem of human trafficking has deep historical and ethno-national roots. At different stages of development of mankind attitudes towards human trafficking was quite liberal. Later, the human community realized the impossibility of existing this form of using a person that discriminated and humiliated dignity. There was a perennial struggle with this disgraceful phenomenon that does not stop till this day.
Although slavery may involve forced labor, forced labor in and of itself is not considered a form of slavery unless the notion of “ownership” is involved. However, international standards severely limit the use of forced labor: it is prohibited except when imposed by the state.
In reality there is and has been much abuse of this right by political authorities and others in positions of power. Through coercion, individuals have been forced to work without payment, often in harsh and hazardous conditions. Recent reports of forced-labor practices in countries afflicted by civil conflict indicate that people have been used as human mine detectors and have sometimes been arbitrarily killed by the soldiers for whom they have worked.
- International Labour Organization Convention 29, 1930 concerning Forced Labor
- International Labour Organization Convention Number 105 of 1957, concerning the Abolition of Forced Labor
- UN 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Article 8.3)
Content by Mini Singh
Research Analyst, FSE
Content in Arabic by Raja El Habti
Research Assistant, FSE