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Introduction

By way of introduction, I was educated as a physicist (Ph.D. 1977), was a professor of electrical engineering for ten years, and I have been an attorney in Massachusetts since 1998. I have been interested in science and public policy since the 1960s, and I sometimes post at my website essays that preserve historical details on some topic.

On 10 June 2014, the Islamic State for Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) captured Mosul, the second-largest city in Iraq. That event jolted politicians in the USA and Western Europe into realizing that there was a debacle in Iraq.

Beginning in Sep 2013, I have been writing essays to preserve historical details of the removal of chemical weapons from Syria and the futile peace negotiations in Syria. In June 2014, I began including in my contemporaneous essay on Syria historical details about (1) the Iraqi dysfunctional government and (2) the U.S. Government response to ISIL in Iraq.

There are several items about Iraq that I include in this webpage below, instead of repeating in each of my monthly essays:
  1. terse discussion of delay by Iraqi Parliament during July-October 2014, including a table of meetings of Parliament;
  2. tables of monthly death tolls in Iraq during 2013-2015; and
  3. a list of the escalation of the U.S. military role in Iraq and Syria, beginning in June 2014.

My Essays on Iraq
Beginning June 2014

See my separate webpage for links to each of my essays on Syria/Iraq, together with a list of contents of each essay. Here I provide only the contents relevant to Iraq:
  1. My eighth essay on Syria covers June 2014, and chronicled the history of:
    • ISIL captures Mosul in Iraq (10 June);
    • and the U.S. response to this debacle in Iraq.

  2. My essay for July 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • Islamic condemnation of ISIL caliphate,
    • Ethnic cleansing and other atrocities in Iraq,
    • Failure of Iraqi Parliament to elect new prime minister, and
    • U.S. response to this debacle in Iraq.

  3. My essay for August 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq,
    • Implausible information from Iraqi government,
    • Abadi nominated as new prime minister (11 Aug),
    • Sunni politicians halt cooperation with forming new government (22 Aug),
    • U.S. airdrops of food and water on mountains near Sinjar (7-13 Aug),
    • U.S. airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq (began 8 Aug 2014),
    • U.S. response to this debacle in Iraq.

  4. My essay for September 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq;
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament.
    • Daily News from Syria and Iraq, including U.S. Government press briefings, speeches
    • Daily press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

  5. My essay for October 2014 on Syria chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings and executions by ISIL;
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament, all remaining ministers approved on 18 Oct;
    • Anbar province in Iraq may be captured by ISIL;
    • Daily press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.

  6. My essay for Nov 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings and executions by ISIL;
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament;
    • at least 50,000 "ghost soldiers" on payroll of Iraqi army;
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.

  7. My essay for Dec 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament;
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria; Iranian airstrike in Iraq on 30 Nov;
    • U.S. Congress fails to pass new AUMF, but barely passes budget.

  8. My essay for Jan 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament;
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria;
    • Islamic terrorism in Paris, France (7-9 Jan 2015).

  9. My essay for Feb 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
    • Islamic public relations problem;   Obama refuses to say "Islamic terrorism";
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament;
    • Obama's draft AUMF;
    • ISIL's logistics problem;
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria;
    • Islamic terrorist in Copenhagen (14 Feb 2015).

  10. My essay for March 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
    • Islamic public relations problem;
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
    • Iraqi army attempts to liberate Tikrit;
    • Iraq chooses Iran, Iraq rejects USA, then Iraq chooses USA;
    • Shiite Revenge for Massacre at Speicher Base;
    • AUMF for anti-ISIL campaign stalls;
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.

  11. My essay for April 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers
    • Iraqi army liberates Tikrit
      • looting in Tikrit
      • Tikrit in ruins
    • No gratitude from Iraq for U.S. airstrikes
    • AUMF for anti-ISIL campaign stalls in U.S. Congress
    • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
    • Foreign Fighters Join ISIL
    • View from Pentagon
    • Abadi Visits Washington (14-16 April 2015)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.

  12. My essay for May 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
    • Iraqi army liberates Tikrit
    • AUMF for anti-ISIL campaign stalled in U.S. Congress
    • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
      • ISIL captures Ramadi (17 May)
      • Fleeing Iraqi army abandons weapons, is gift to ISIL
      • U.S. Government reaction to rout in Ramadi (18 May)
      • Blame for rout in Ramadi
      • Iraq attempts to retake Ramadi (26-31 May)
    • Fighting continues at Baiji in Iraq
    • More false information from Iraqi government (13 May)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

  13. My essay for June 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • my proposal
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
    • Fighting continues in Baiji
    • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
      • Fleeing Iraqi army abandons weapons, is gift to ISIL
      • Iraq attempts to retake Ramadi (26 May to 6 June)
      • Liberation of Ramadi postponed indefinitely
    • Counter-ISIL Coalition meets in Paris (2 June)
    • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too!
    • U.S. Propaganda (3 June)
      • Truth: It will be a long war
    • Obama's press conference (8 June)
    • Obama throws more resources at Iraq (10 June)
    • Iraq is a failure: corruption, need to bypass Iraqi government
    • Return of residents to Tikrit (15 June)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

  14. My essay for July 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • my proposal
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
    • Iraq is a failure
    • Send munitions directly to Kurds in Iraq?
    • Fighting continues in Baiji
    • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
      • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
      • Iraq to liberate Fallujah
    • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too!
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

  15. My essay for August 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • ISIL allegedly uses mustard gas in Iraq
    • Atrocities in Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Report on Fall of Mosul
      • Reaction of Maliki to Report
    • Iraq is a failure (but reforms on 11, 16 Aug 2015)
    • ISIL is not defeated
    • Fighting continues in Baiji in Iraq
    • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
      • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
      • Iraq to liberate Fallujah
    • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Press releases from the Pentagon about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

  16. My essay for September 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Atrocities in Iraq
    • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
    • Iraq is a failed nation
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
    • Fighting continues in Baiji in Iraq
    • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
      • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
      • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June 2015)
    • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Russia, Iran create office in Baghdad
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

  17. My essay for October 2015 chronicles the same topics as my essay for September 2015, except that I deleted the section on the new office in Baghdad, and I added two new sections on Iraq:
    • a 22 Oct Kurdish/U.S. raid on an ISIL prison and
    • possible Russian intervention (e.g., airstrikes) in Iraq.
    Most of the relevant news in October 2015 involved Syria.

  18. My essay for November 2015 chronicles the same topics as my essay for October 2015, except that I deleted the section on a 22 Oct Kurdish/U.S. raid on an ISIL prison. I continue to chronicle that Iraq is a failed nation, and the lack of progress in liberating Iraqi cities from ISIL. Most of the relevant news in November 2015 involved Syria.

  19. My essay for December 2015 chronicles the same topics as my essay for November 2015, except:
    • Iraq rejected U.S. proposal for approximately 100 U.S. special operation forces for combat missions in Iraq,
    • deleted section on fighting in Baiji, and
    • liberation of Ramadi began on 22 Dec 2015
    Most of the relevant news in December 2015 involved Syria.

  20. My essay for January 2016 chronicles the same topics as my essay for December 2015, except:
    • Iraq apparently accepted a U.S. proposal for approximately 100 U.S. special operation forces for combat missions in Iraq,
    • more reports of atrocities and corruption in Iraq, and
    • Ramadi approximately 95% liberated from ISIL on 28 Jan 2016, but explosives remain.
    Most of the relevant news in January 2016 involved Syria.

  21. My essay for February 2016 chronicles the same topics as my essay for January 2016, except:
    • more reports of atrocities in Iraq,
    • explosives remain in Ramadi, Iraq unable to afford cost of rebuilding Ramadi, and
    • Anti-ISIL Coalition Meeting in Brussels (11 Feb 2016).
    Most of the relevant news in February 2016 involved Syria.

  22. My essay for March 2016 chronicles:
    • more reports of atrocities in Iraq
    • Iraq is a failed nation
    • U.S. combat troops in Iraq
    • Iraq announced on 24 March 2016 that liberation of Mosul had begun
    • ISIL is not defeated
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    Most of the relevant news in March 2016 involved Syria.

  23. My essay for April 2016 chronicled the same topics as my essay for March, plus Fallujah was besieged by Iraqi forces since January, the town of Hit was liberated from ISIL on 20 April, the liberation of Mosul stalled on 6 April, and the dysfunctional Iraqi parliament refused to vote on Abadi's proposed reforms.

  24. My essay for May 2016 chronicled the same topics as my essay for March, plus Ramadi is liberated and uninhabitable, the liberation of Fallujah began on 30 May, and the dysfunctional Iraqi parliament failed to meet during May.

  25. My essay for June 2016 chronicled the same topics as my essay for March, plus the liberation of Fallujah, and the dysfunctional Iraqi parliament failed to meet during May and June. I deleted the section on Ramadi. I added a new concluding section at the end of my essay that explains why the U.S. War on Terror may have decreased security in Europe and the USA.

  26. My essay for July 2016 chronicled the same topics as my essay for March. I deleted the section on Fallujah.

  27. My essays for August 2016 and September 2016 mostly chronicled the debacle in Syria. But those two essays reported on atrocities in Iraq, dismissal of the Iraqi defense and finance ministers, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continued to report the daily airstrikes in Iraq and Syria by the U.S.-led coalition.
  1. My essay for October 2016 mentions the beginning of the liberation of Mosul, which finally began on 17 October. My October essay deletes the sections on the failure of the Iraqi government to prosecute corrupt army officers who hired "ghost soldiers", and the failure to prosecute army officers who fled from Mosul and Ramadi. (Those sections appeared in my essays for September 2014 through September 2016.)

  2. My essay for November 2016 mentions the continuing slow progress in liberating eastern Mosul, atrocities in Iraq, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continued to report the daily airstrikes in Iraq and Syria by the U.S.-led coalition.

  3. My essay for December 2016 mentions the continuing slow progress in liberating eastern Mosul, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continued to report the daily airstrikes in Iraq and Syria by the U.S.-led coalition.

  4. My essay for January 2017 mentions the liberation of all of eastern Mosul, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continuing terrorist attacks by ISIL in Iraq.   In January 2017, I stopped chronicling the daily airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, because this uninteresting chore was consuming about four hours of my time each month.

  5. My essay for February 2017 mentions the beginning of the liberation of western Mosul, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continuing terrorist attacks by ISIL in Iraq.

  6. My essays for March 2017   April 2017   May 2017 and June 2017 mention the slow progress in the liberation of western Mosul, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continuing terrorist attacks by ISIL in Iraq. Most of these essays chronicle problems in Syria, explain why peace negotiations for Syria are futile, and chronicle Islamic terrorism in Europe.
  1. My essay for July 2017 mentions the liberation of western Mosul from ISIL, the cost of the U.S. war against ISIL, and continuing terrorist attacks by ISIL in Iraq.
Beginning in August 2017, I reduced the coverage of the debacle in Iraq in my essays on Syria. Beginning 23 Sep 2015, All Iraq News suddenly reduced the number of new news articles each day at its English-language website. That website was the best source of information about the dysfunctional Iraqi parliament, so it is a serious loss of information that frustrates chronicling the dysfunctional Iraqi parliament. During July 2017, I noticed limited coverage of the liberation of Mosul by journalists, making me suspect censorship of bad news by the Iraqi government. Accordingly, I quit chronicling the corruption, sectarianism, and incompetence of the Iraqi government. Also, after 3 years of chronicling the debacle in Iraq, I am moving on to other topics, such as North Korea.

Short History of Iraq: 2003-2014

On 19 March 2003, a coalition led by the USA invaded Iraq to capture Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction (e.g., chemical weapons). The chemical weapons were never located, and may have been a fictional boast by Hussein. The Iraqi government collapsed and disappeared at the beginning of the invasion, allowing Iraqis to loot government offices and museums, and leaving Iraq in anarchy. The USA created a provisional government for Iraq, but avoided appointing people who had been employed in Hussein's government — a decision which avoided using the most experienced and best-qualified people.

At the risk of oversimplification of a complex problem, let me tersely describe the sectarian problem in Iraq. Saddam Hussein was a Sunni Muslim, and his government was composed mostly from the Sunni minority in Iraq — discriminating against the Shiite majority and Kurds. The new Iraqi government in 2006 was elected, but because about 62% of Iraqis are Shiite Muslims, the democratic government was mostly composed of Shiites. Many Shiites in the new Iraqi government discriminated against Sunnis, to get revenge for discrimination against Shiites during the Hussein-era.

Deposing Saddam Hussein created anarchy in Iraq, which (together with sectarianism) allowed terrorism to become common in Iraq, and allowed the creation of Al-Qaeda in Iraq (the predecessor of ISIL) in 2004. We saw something similar in Libya — after Gaddafi was deposed, anarchy occurred, and terrorism became common in Libya. The lesson here is do not overthrow a strong leader, even if he is a tyrant, because terrorism will flourish in the anarchy following the removal of a strong leader. Specifically, as explained in my essays, we should cooperate with Assad in fighting terrorism in Syria, despite the fact that Assad is a tyrant who may have committed crimes against humanity.

After the U.S. Military departed from Iraq in December 2011, the Iraqi government began increasing corruption and sectarianism. The Iraqi army became ineffective.

ISIL entered Syria in May 2013, where it captured some of northern and eastern Syria and committed numerous atrocities. In Jan 2014, part of ISIL invaded Iraq. The Iraqi army was unable or unwilling to stop ISIL. ISIL captured Fallujah on 4 Jan 2014, the first in a long string of ISIL victories. On 10 June 2014, instead of defending Mosul from about 1000 ISIL terrorists, 30,000 Iraqi army soldiers simply fled, abandoning equipment and munitions for ISIL to steal. By the end of June 2014, ISIL had captured approximately 1/3 of Iraq.

Delay by Iraqi Parliament during June-Oct 2014

On 30 April 2014, the third national election was held in Iraq. The results were certified on 17 June 2014. The Iraqi Parliament could meet anytime after the results were certified. On 19 June, Obama told the Iraqi Parliament to convene "as soon as possible" and select government leaders with an "inclusive agenda". The Iraqi response was to wait until 1 July, the last possible day under their constitution, to have a first meeting of Parliament. On the morning of 27 June, the head Shiite cleric in Iraq, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, called on the new Parliament to decide on the parliament speaker, president, and prime minister before the first session of Parliament on 1 July. The Parliament also ignored Sistani.

The Iraqi constitution, Article 76, requires a prime minister be nominated not more than 15 days after the president is selected. That 15 day deadline expired on 8 Aug, except that Parliament arguably had an extra two days because of a religious holiday on 29 July. On 11 Aug 2014 — one day after the deadline including the two-day extension — the new Iraqi president nominated a new prime minister.

The Iraqi Parliament confirmed prime minister Abadi and most of his new ministers on 8 Sep, just two days before the thirty day deadline, and 69 days after the first meeting of the new Parliament. The key posts of Defense Minister and Interior Minister were filled on 18 Oct, 38 days after the 10 Sep deadline established by the constitution.

Not only did the Parliament delay, but their meetings were infrequent and a significant number of 328 members were absent, as shown in the table below.

Meetings of Iraqi Parliament in July-Oct 2014

DateAttendanceDuration or
Accomplishment
1 July78%2 hours
13 July71%half-hour
15 July83%Speaker elected
24 July82%President elected
5 Aug75%4 hours
7 Aug??
10 Aug70%6 hours
19 Aug66%5 hours
21 Aug63%5 hours
23 Aug74%5 hours
25 Aug58%7 hours
2 Sep?interrupted by mob
3 Sep56%discuss massacre at Speicher AFB
6 Sep55%5 hours
8 Sep62%approved members of committees
8 Sep88%approved new government
16 Sep73%3 of 4 nominees rejected
18 Sep67%5 hours
20 Sep65%5 hours
22 Sep68%2 hours
24 Sep>61%2 hours
14 Oct>64%?
16 Oct66%7 hours
18 Oct79%8 ministers approved
20 Oct62%?
28 Oct56%5 hours
30 Oct52%4 hours

Source of information: news reports at All Iraq News, as summarized in my essays on Syria/Iraq for July, August, September, October 2014.

Criminal Justice System in Iraq has Failed

Not only is the Iraqi Parliament dysfunctional, but also the criminal justice system in Iraq has failed. For example, the Iraqi government is:
  1. apparently unable to prosecute army officers for desertion at Mosul on 10 June 2014,
  2. unable to arrest and prosecute terrorists who conduct almost daily bombings and murders in Iraq (especially Baghdad),
  3. unable to prosecute corrupt army officers who kept "ghost soldiers" on the payroll, and then pocketed the salaries of these fictitious soldiers,
  4. unable to prosecute army officers for desertion at Ramadi on 17 May 2015,
  5. and unable to prosecute government officials for corruption.
In reading English-language news websites in Iraq, I rarely see any mention of judicial decisions, including punishment of criminals.

Death Toll from Terrorism & Violence in Iraq

There are no reliable data for the number of casualties during the early years after the invasion of Iraq during 2003, owing to the collapse of the Iraqi government and subsequent anarchy. Frequently cited numbers are available from the Iraq Body Count website.   Brookings has a graph of the number of civilian deaths per month from May 2003 until June 2012.   The BBC has a bar graph of the number of civilian deaths in Iraq during each month in 2008-2013. The United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) has a two-page PDF table of civilian casualties in Iraq during 2008-2012.

All of the sources agree that, after the U.S. combat troops departed in Dec 2011, there has been an increasing number of civilians killed in Iraq by terrorism and sectarian violence. Amongst other contributions, the U.S. military was suppressing Al-Qaeda in Iraq, now called ISIL or the "Islamic State" caliphate.


Death Toll in 2013 from "Terrorism & Violence" in Iraq
including Anbar Province


MonthDead/Month
Including Anbar
Cumulative
Total
Dead
Citation
Jan 2013
Feb 2013
Mar 2013456456UNAMI
Apr 20137121168UNAMI
May 201310452213UNAMI
June 20137612974UNAMI
July 201310574031UNAMI
Aug 20138044835UNAMI
Sep 20139795814UNAMI
Oct 20139796793UNAMI
Nov 20136597452UNAMI
Dec 20138218273UNAMI

On 8 April 2013, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) began posting at its website monthly reports of casualties, which I used to make the above table. These monthly data from UNAMI include both civilian and Iraqi security forces. Beginning in Dec 2013, when at least 62 people died Anbar province, Anbar is considered separately by UNAMI. The 821 dead for Dec 2013 in the above table includes the 62.

During 2013, according to UNAMI, the annual death toll in Iraq — including civilians and Iraqi security forces — was 8868/year. Associated Press, 1 Jan 2014. The population of Iraq in 2013 was approximately 33 million, which gives a homicide rate of at least 27 deaths per 100,000 people and per year.


Death Toll in 2014 from "Terrorism & Violence" in Iraq
including Anbar Province


Month
Ending
Dead/Month
Excluding Anbar
Dead/Month
Anbar
Cumulative
Total
Dead
Citation
31 Jan 2014733138871UNAMI
28 Feb 20147032981872UNAMI
31 Mar 20145921562620UNAMI
30 Apr 20147501353505UNAMI
31 May 20147991954499UNAMI
30 June 201424172447160UNAMI
31 July 201417371989095UNAMI
31 Aug 2014142026810,783UNAMI
30 Sep 20141119?11,902UNAMI
31 Oct 2014127323313,408UNAMI
30 Nov 2014123240215,042UNAMI
31 Dec 201493716416,143UNAMI

These monthly data from the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) include both civilians and Iraqi security forces. Beginning in December 2013, Anbar province (e.g., Fallujah and Ramadi) is considered separately by UNAMI, because of a lack of reporting from small towns in Anbar province. In September 2014, ISIL began to overrun the remainder of Anbar province, and there were no casualty data from Anbar. And — of course — there are no casualty data from areas controlled by ISIL.   If the links in the right-hand column of the above tables do not function, then go to the UNAMI website and search for


Death Toll in 2015 from "Terrorism & Violence" in Iraq
including Anbar Province


Month
Ending
Dead/MonthCumulative
Total
Dead
Citation
31 Jan 201513751375UNAMI
28 Feb 201511032478UNAMI
31 Mar 2015>9973475UNAMI
30 Apr 20158124287UNAMI
31 May 2015>10315318UNAMI
30 June 201514666784UNAMI
31 July 201513328116UNAMI
31 Aug 201513259441UNAMI
30 Sep 201571710,158UNAMI
31 Oct 201571410,872UNAMI
30 Nov 201588811,760UNAMI
31 Dec 201598012,740UNAMI

These monthly data from the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) include both civilian and Iraqi security forces. During 2015, UNAMI included the available data from Anbar Province in the total for Iraq. The death toll for March 2015 is implausibly small, given the fighting to liberate Tikrit. The death toll for May 2015 does not include Iraqi security forces in Ramadi, and includes only 29 civilians killed in Ramadi — when my essay for May 2015 cites at least 500 people killed in Ramadi during 15-16 May. The death tolls for June through December do not include Iraqi security forces and militias in Anbar province, including Ramadi. For these reasons, the above UNAMI death tolls are a serious underestimate of the true death toll in Iraq. The UNAMI totals may be worthless because of this undercounting of actual deaths.

On 19 January 2016, the United Nations released a report on the 18,802 civilian deaths in Iraq from 1 Jan 2014 to 31 Oct 2015. The United Nations characterizes this death toll during 22 months as "staggering". But I calculate an average of 854 deaths/month, which should be compared with the average in Syria of 5468/month during 2014-2015. The death rate in Syria is approximately 6 times that in Iraq.

Expansion of U.S. Military Role in Iraq & Syria

U.S. President Obama made what I regard as a serious error in refusing during Jan-June 2014 to help the Iraqi government expel ISIL. On 19 June 2014, Obama declared that he would wait for Iraq to form a new, inclusive (i.e. nonsectarian) government before the U.S. Military would assist Iraq (e.g., with airstrikes against ISIL). Despite that incentive, the dysfunctional Iraqi Parliament moved with glacial slowness in forming a new government, during an existential crisis in Iraq. On 7 Aug 2014 — with a threatened genocide of Yazidis by ISIL — Obama began a program of airdrops of humanitarian aid to besieged people in Iraq and a program of limited U.S. airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq.

“mission creep”

I wrote this terse history of U.S. Military involvement in Iraq and Syria, to show the continuing escalation, also known as “mission creep”:
  1. 14 June 2014: U.S.S. George H.W. Bush and two other Navy ships ordered to Persian Gulf.

  2. 19 June 2014: Obama declared that the USA will wait for the Iraqi Parliament to appoint a new, inclusive government, before the U.S. begins any U.S. military action in Iraq.

  3. 24 June 2014: the U.S. military began to deploy "up to 300" personnel to advise the Iraqi army and to assess/evaluate the situation in Iraq.

  4. 30 June 2014: Obama orders an additional 200 U.S. military personnel to Iraq, "to reinforce security at the U.S. Embassy, its support facilities, and the Baghdad International Airport."

  5. 7 August 2014: Obama orders two actions: (1) U.S. airstrikes in Iraq to protect U.S. citizens in Erbil;   (2) airdrops of humanitarian aid to prevent genocide of Yazidis in mountains near Sinjar.

  6. 16 August 2014: U.S. begins airstrikes on ISIL near Mosul Dam. On 18 Aug, peshmerga recapture Mosul Dam from ISIL. But these airstrikes near Mosul Dam are "mission creep" for the USA. During 17-30 Aug the press releases from the U.S. Central Command added "protect critical infrastructure" to the list of criteria for airstrikes in Iraq.

  7. 25 August 2014: Obama approves surveillance flights over Syria.

  8. 2 Sep 2014: Obama sends "approximately 350 additional U.S. military personnel to protect our diplomatic facilities and personnel in Baghdad". This brings the total to 550.

  9. 10 Sep 2014:
    • Obama orders significant expansion of airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq,
    • Obama announces U.S. will provide airstrikes against ISIL inside Syria at some unspecified future time, and
    • Obama orders an additional 475 U.S. military personnel to Iraq for assessments of Iraqi security forces, ISR, and command and control in Baghdad and Erbil. These new deployments bring the total U.S. military personnel in Iraq to 1600.

  10. 23 Sep 2014: aircraft from the USA, Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates bombed — plus 47 Tomahawk missiles from two U.S. Navy ships — and hit 16 terrorist targets (i.e., ISIL, Nusra Front, and Khorasan Group) in Syria.   On 10 Sep, Obama only mentioned attacking ISIL in Syria, but on 23 Sep airstrikes were also against the Khorasan Group (Al-Qaeda) west of Aleppo, and Nusra Front (Al-Qaeda).

  11. 19 Oct 2014: U.S. aircraft airdrop weapons and ammunition to Syrian Kurdish rebels who are defending Kobani from attacks by ISIL. This is significant because the Turkish government — U.S. allies in NATO — considers the Syrian Kurds to be terrorists.

  12. 7 Nov 2014: Obama authorizes another 1500 U.S. troops to Iraq, which more than doubles the U.S. military in Iraq. Also Obama will ask Congress to authorize an additional US$ 5.6 billion for the fight against ISIL.

  13. 15 May 2015: Obama authorizes U.S. Military raid in eastern Syria, which killed Abu Sayyaf (an ISIL leader) and kidnapped his wife.

  14. 10 June 2015: Obama authorizes another 450 U.S. troops to Iraq.

  15. 31 July 2015: U.S. airstrikes will defend U.S.-trained Syrian rebels inside Syria, including defending them from attack by the Syrian military and its allies. (This new policy was publicly announced on the night of 2 August 2015.) This new policy was aborted by canceling the train-and-equip program on 9 Oct 2015.

  16. On 22 October 2015, 30 U.S. Army personnel in 5 helicopters accompanied Kurdish forces in rescuing 69 hostages from an ISIL prison in Iraq. One U.S. soldier was killed in the attack. Apparently, U.S. Military personnel are now engaged in ground combat operations in Iraq.

  17. On 30 October 2015, Obama ordered fewer than 50 U.S. Military personnel into Syria, to "advise and assist" fighters who will attack ISIL.

  18. On 1 December 2015, the U.S. Government announced that approximately 100 to 200 U.S. special operations personnel and supporting personnel would be sent to Iraq "to conduct raids, free hostages, gather intelligence and capture ISIL leaders".

  19. On 18 April 2016, it was announced that the number of U.S. troops in Iraq would be increased by 217, and also that 8 Apache helicopters operated by the U.S. Army would be available to support the Iraqi army.

  20. On 25 April 2016, Obama authorized up to 250 additional U.S. Military personnel into Syria, to add to the 50 authorized on 30 Oct 2015.

  21. On 11 July 2016, the U.S. Secretary of Defense announced that an additional 560 U.S. troops would be sent to Iraq. The additional 560 soldiers makes a total of 4647 U.S. military personnel in Iraq.

  22. On 28 September 2016, the U.S. Secretary of Defense announced that an additional 615 U.S. troops would be sent to Iraq, to assist Iraqis with the assault on Mosul. The additional 615 soldiers makes a total of 5262 U.S. military personnel in Iraq.

  23. On 10 December 2016, the U.S. Secretary of Defense announced the deployment of an additional 200 U.S. Military personnel to Syria, to assist in the liberation of Raqqa from ISIL. This makes a total of 500 U.S. personnel in Syria.

  24. On 8 March 2017, the U.S. Department of Defense "temporarily" assigned approximately 400 U.S. Marines to aid in the liberation of Raqqa. Additionally, fewer than 1000 U.S. military personnel were assigned to "temporary" duty in Kuwait, where they could be quickly moved to Syria or Iraq. The "temporary" assignments evade the limit of 503 personnel in Syria that was established by Obama in December 2016.

Sources of information are cited in my essays on Syria/Iraq, beginning with my essay for June 2014.

Conclusion

I conclude that the government of Iraq during 2003-2016 is dysfunctional and unworthy of assistance. But the Iraqi people do not deserve to suffer at the hands of the barbaric ISIL terrorists. Furthermore, ISIL in Iraq and Syria must be annihilated to protect neighboring nations from future invasion by ISIL terrorists, as ISIL expands their caliphate.

In my opinion, the death tolls from violence and terrorism in Iraq clearly show the collapse of civilization in Iraq.

Opinion polls show that that most Americans now regard the 2003 invasion of Iraq as a mistake. All U.S. military combat troops were withdrawn from Iraq in Dec 2011. But in Aug 2014, the USA became involved in airstrikes in Iraq that will probably persist for many years.


Copyright 2014-2017 by Ronald B. Standler
this document is at  
first posted 4 Sep 2014, revised 7 October 2017

The annotated list of my essays on Syria and Iraq.






Introduction

By way of introduction, I was educated as a physicist (Ph.D. 1977), was a professor of electrical engineering for ten years, and I have been an attorney in Massachusetts since 1998. I have been interested in science and public policy since the 1960s, and I sometimes post at my website essays that preserve historical details on some topic.

There has been a civil war in Syria since March 2011 that diplomats have been unable to stop. On 8 Sep 2013, I decided to collect and preserve some of the historical details of the removal of chemical weapons from Syria and the futile peace negotiations for Syria.

While the principal purpose of this webpage is to provide an annotated list of my essays on the civil war in Syria, I also include:
I had intended to quit writing on Syria at the end of June 2014, when all of the declared chemical weapons had been removed from Syria, and peace negotiations were not feasible for the foreseeable future. But the capture of Mosul, Iraq by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) on 10 June 2014 — as well as the declaration of the Islamic State's caliphate on 29 June 2014 — changed the Western view of the insurgency in Syria. In June 2014, I began including historical details about Iraq in my contemporaneous essays on Syria.

My essays on Syria and Iraq focus on five topics:
  1. chemical weapons: use and removal
  2. futile peace negotiations for Syria
  3. the response of the U.S. Government to ISIL in Iraq and Syria
  4. the dysfunctional Iraqi government (June 2014 to Oct 2015)
  5. chronicling major Islamic terrorist attacks in Europe and the USA (beginning January 2015)

Standler's Essays on Syria & Iraq

On 15 Jan 2018, my 47 essays include more than 14,027 links to news articles and documents, and total 5265 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.
  1. My first essay on Syria covers dates from 8 Sep 2013 to 5 Oct 2013, and chronicled the history of:
    • Obama's threat of U.S. military strikes on Syria in retaliation for Assad's alleged use of chemical weapons on 21 Aug 2013;
    • the aborted proceedings in the U.S. Congress on the approval of Obama's request to use a military strike;
    • the 16 Sep Report of United Nations Inspectors that concludes chemical weapons were used in Syria on 21 Aug;
    • the Russian concern with the export of experienced terrorists from Syria (20 Sep) and tersely — and incompletely — discusses the scourge of Islamic terrorism;
    • the evolution of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2118 on the removal of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • and death toll in Syria more than 115,000 on 30 Sep 2013.
    My first essay contains 190 links to news articles and documents, and 62 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  2. My second essay about Syria covers dates from 6 Oct 2013 to 31 Dec 2013, and chronicled the history of:
    • destroying chemical weapons in Syria;
    • the 12 Dec Report of United Nations Inspectors about alleged use of chemical weapons at six sites in Syria;
    • death toll in Syria more than 120,000 on 31 Oct 2013;
    • occasional mentions of atrocities by jihadists and Al-Qaeda in Syria;
    • the preparations for the Geneva2 peace conference;
    • the disorganization of the Syrian National Coalition;
    • the role of Assad in the future government of Syria;
    • and the politics of the peace process.
    My second essay contains more than 495 links to news articles and documents, and 129 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  3. My essay for January 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • removal of 4% of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • death toll in Syria more than 136,000 on 31 Jan 2014;
    • war against ISIL by rebels/jihadists;
    • United Nations conference in Montreux on 22 Jan 2014;
    • Geneva2 negotiations on 24-31 Jan 2014;
    • failure to implement agreement of 26 Jan to deliver food to Homs;
    • and the reasons for failure of Geneva2 negotiations.
    My third essay contains more than 315 links to news articles and documents, and 89 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  4. My essay for February 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • removal of 26% of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • Syria now promises to deliver all its chemical weapons before 27 April;
    • death toll in Syria more than 140,000 on 14 February;
    • U.N. Security Council Resolution 2139;
    • humanitarian relief for Homs (e.g., evacuation of civilians, delivery of food) during 7-12 Feb 2014;
    • Geneva2 second round of negotiations: 10-15 Feb 2014;
    • my analysis of why Geneva2 failed and why further negotiations are futile;
    • truce in six Syrian towns without U.N. involvement;
    • and Obama's quest for new options in Syria, but finds none.
    My fourth essay contains more than 270 links to news articles and documents, and 101 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  5. My essay for March 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • removal of 49% of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • death toll in Syria more than 146,000 on 12 March;
    • recognition that Assad seems to be winning the Syrian civil war;
    • failure of U.N. Security Council Resolution 2139;
    • and unlikely there will be more negotiations in foreseeable future.
    My fifth essay contains more than 185 links to news articles and documents, and 59 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  6. My essay for April 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • death toll in Syria more than 150,000 on 31 March;
    • removal of 92% of chemical weapons from Syria, failure of Assad to meet 5 Feb deadline specified by OPCW, and failure of Assad to meet his own 27 April deadline;
    • 7 April claim by Seymour Hersh that Nusra Front released Sarin on 21 Aug 2013;
    • release of chemical weapons (chlorine?) in Kafr Zeita in Syria on 11 April;
    • Europe, Russia, USA now paying more attention to crisis in Ukraine/Crimea than to Syrian civil war;
    • U.N. Secretary General preparing for Geneva3 (but Coalition refuses to attend more negotiations);
    • recognition that Assad seems to be winning the Syrian civil war;
    • and failure of U.N. Security Council Resolution 2139.
    My sixth essay contains more than 235 links to news articles and documents, and 75 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  7. My essay for May 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • death toll in Syria more than 162,000 on 18 May;
    • failure to remove final 8% of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • investigation of release of chemical weapons (chlorine?) in Kafr Zeita in Syria on 11 April;
    • Europe, Russia, USA now paying more attention to crises elsewhere (e.g., Ukraine, multiple places in Africa) than to Syrian civil war;
    • rebels and jihadists withdraw from Homs;
    • recognition that Assad seems to be winning the Syrian civil war;
    • U.S. Government embraces Syrian National Coalition;
    • French proposal for war crimes prosecution defeated on 22 May 2014;
    • and second U.N. envoy on Syria, Lakhdar Brahimi, resigns in frustration with failed negotiations.
    My seventh essay contains more than 195 links to news articles and documents, and 90 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  8. My essay for June 2014 continues coverage of Syria and begins to cover Iraq. My eighth essay chronicled the history of:
    • removal of final 8% of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • failure of U.N. Security Council Resolution 2139 (22 May & 20 June);
    • Assad re-elected in Syria (28 May, 3 June);
    • Islamic terrorism in Europe (1 June);
    • recognition that Assad is winning the civil war;
    • U.S. military aid to rebels in Syria;
    • Brahimi interview (7 June);
    • ISIL captures Mosul in Iraq (10 June);
    • and the U.S. response to this debacle in Iraq.
    My eighth essay contains more than 345 links to news articles and documents, and 89 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  9. My essay for July 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • destruction of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • death toll in Syria more than 170,000 (8 July);
    • investigation of release of chemical weapons (chlorine?) in Kafr Zeita in Syria on 11 April;
    • U.S. military aid to rebels in Syria;
    • recognition that Assad is winning the civil war;
    • U.N. appoints new envoy to negotiate peace in Syria
    • failure of U.N. Security Council Resolution 2139, approval of Resolution 2165;
    • debacle in Iraq:
      • Islamic condemnation of ISIL caliphate,
      • ethnic cleansing and other atrocities in Iraq,
      • failure of Iraqi Parliament to elect new prime minister, and
      • U.S. response to this debacle in Iraq.
    My ninth essay contains more than 320 links to news articles and documents, and 82 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary. (The daily news from Iraq for 28 July 2014 mentions Obama called ISIL "junior varsity" terrorists in January 2014.)

  10. My essay for August 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • finished destruction of chemical weapons from Syria;
    • death toll in Syria more than 180,000 (20 Aug);
    • U.S. military aid to rebels in Syria;
    • recognition that Assad is winning the civil war;
    • U.N. Security Council Resolutions 2139, 2165, and 2170;
    • James Foley beheaded by ISIL in Syria;
    • debacle in Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq,
      • implausible information from Iraqi government,
      • Ebadi nominated as new prime minister (11 Aug),
      • Sunni politicians halt cooperation with forming new government (22 Aug),
      • U.S. airdrops of food and water on mountains near Sinjar (7-13 Aug),
      • U.S. airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq (began 8 Aug 2014),
      • hypothetical U.S. airstrikes on ISIL in Syria, without the permission of Assad, and
      • U.S. response to this debacle in Iraq.
    My tenth essay contains more than 460 links to news articles and documents, and 142 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  11. My essay for September 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • investigation of release of chemical weapons (chlorine?) in Kafr Zeita in Syria on 11 April.
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria more than 180,000 (20 Aug);
      • Rebels in Syria: reorganization and training, U.S. Military aid;
      • recognition that Assad is winning the civil war;
      • new U.N. negotiator for Syria;
      • James Sotloff and David Haines beheaded by ISIL in Syria.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq;
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
      • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament.
    • Daily News from Syria and Iraq, including U.S. Government press briefings, speeches
    • Daily press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • U.S. Congress votes to approve training/equipping moderate Syrian rebels.
    My eleventh essay contains more than 345 links to news articles and documents, and 148 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  12. My essay for October 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • alleged release of chlorine by ISIL in Iraq on 15 Sep.
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria more than 193,000 (31 Oct);
      • recognition that Assad is winning the civil war;
      • new U.N. negotiator for Syria;
      • U.N. Security Council Resolutions 2139 and 2165 (24 Sep and 23 Oct);
      • Allen Henning beheaded by ISIL in Syria.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings and executions by ISIL;
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
      • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament, all remaining ministers approved on 18 Oct.
    • Daily News from Syria and Iraq, including U.S. Government press briefings, speeches
      • Turkey;
      • siege of Kobani;
      • airstrikes alone ineffective;
      • Anbar province in Iraq may be captured by ISIL.
    • Daily press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.
    My twelfth essay contains more than 275 links to news articles and documents, and 86 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  13. My essay for November 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • alleged release of chlorine by ISIL in Iraq on 15 Sep.
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria more than 202,354 (1 Dec);
      • defeat of FSA by Nusra Front in northeast Syria;
      • summary of terrorists steal weapons;
      • Syrian National Coalition reorganizes Supreme Military Council;
      • Assad may lack resources to win civil war;
      • U.N. peace proposal for Syria;
      • U.N. Security Council Resolutions 2139 and 2165 (21 Nov);
      • Peter Kassig beheaded by ISIL in Syria.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings and executions by ISIL;
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
      • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament.
    • Daily News from Syria and Iraq, including U.S. Government press briefings, speeches
      • siege of Kobani;
      • at least 50,000 "ghost soldiers" on payroll of Iraqi army.
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.
    My thirteenth essay contains more than 185 links to news articles and documents, and 63 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  14. My essay for December 2014 chronicled the history of:
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria more than 206,000 (31 Dec), of whom 76,021 died during 2014;
      • reorganizations of FSA;
      • leader of FSA disappeared from public view;
      • U.N. and Russian peace proposals for Syria.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
      • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament.
    • Daily News from Syria and Iraq, including U.S. Government press briefings, speeches
      • siege of Kobani;
      • "Daesh" replaces ISIL.
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria; infrequent partner participation in airstrikes in Syria; Iranian airstrike in Iraq on 30 Nov.
    • U.S. Congress fails to pass new AUMF, but barely passes budget.
    My fourteenth essay contains more than 205 links to news articles and documents, and 61 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  15. My essay for Jan 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria more than 209,395 (31 Jan);
      • reorganizations of FSA;
      • training of FSA;
      • Peace consultations for Syria in Moscow (26-29 Jan);
      • ISIL executes Yukawa & Goto.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
      • Islamic public relations problem;
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
      • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament.
    • Daily News from Syria and Iraq, including U.S. Government press briefings, speeches
      • siege of Kobani;
      • anti-ISIL coalition meets (22 Jan);
      • spread of ISIL to Egypt, Libya, and Afghanistan.
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.
    • Islamic terrorism in Paris, France (7-9 Jan):
      • Islamic reaction;
      • Hollande denies terrorists in Paris are Islamic;
      • Islamic terrorists will return to Europe from Syria.
    My fifteenth essay contains more than 290 links to news articles and documents, and 84 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  16. My essay for Feb 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria more than 213,407 (28 Feb);
      • reorganizations of FSA;
      • training of FSA;
      • Hazzm (formerly part of Free Syrian Army) joins Jihadists;
      • de Mistura's proposal for freeze in Aleppo;
      • ISIL executes al-Kasasbeh, a Jordanian pilot.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq, including car bombings by ISIL;
      • Islamic public relations problem;   Obama refuses to say "Islamic terrorism";
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers;
      • Meetings of Iraqi Parliament.
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq (including press briefings & press conferences, speeches)
      • Obama attacks Christians at National Prayer Breakfast (5 Feb);
      • Obama's draft AUMF;
      • ISIL's logistics problem;
      • ISIL beheads 21 Christians in Libya (15 Feb);
      • Obama opposes "violent extremism" (18 Feb);
      • ISIL abducts Assyrian Christians in Syria (23 Feb).
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.
    • Islamic terrorist in Copenhagen (14 Feb).
    My sixteenth essay contains more than 310 links to news articles and documents, and 87 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  17. My essay for March 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Syria:
      • war damage in Syria;
      • death toll in Syria now over 215,518 (14 Mar);
      • training of FSA;
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War;
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria;
      • U.N. Security Council Resolutions 2139 and 2165.
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq;
      • Islamic public relations problem;
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers.
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq (including press briefings & press conferences, speeches)
      • ISIL abducted Assyrian Christians in Syria;
      • Iraqi army attempts to liberate Tikrit;
      • Iraq chooses Iran, Iraq rejects USA, then Iraq chooses USA;
      • Shiite Revenge for Massacre at Speicher Base;
      • AUMF for anti-ISIL campaign stalls.
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria.
    My seventeenth essay contains more than 360 links to news articles and documents, and 81 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  18. My essay for April 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Public release of reports from OPCW fact-finding missions in 2014 about alleged use of chlorine gas in Syria
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria now over 220,00 (14 April)
      • training of FSA
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria
        • de Mistura to begin meetings in May 2015
        • second Moscow conference (6-10 April 2015)
      • Prosecution of ISIL for war crimes? Jurisdiction by International Criminal Court
      • U.N. Security Council Resolutions 2139 and 2165
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq
      • Islamic public relations problem
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Cowardly Iraqi Army Officers
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq (including press briefings & press conferences, speeches)
      • ISIL abducted Assyrian Christians in Syria
      • Iraqi army liberates Tikrit
        • looting in Tikrit
        • Tikrit in ruins
      • No gratitude from Iraq for U.S. airstrikes
      • AUMF for anti-ISIL campaign stalls in U.S. Congress
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
      • Foreign Fighters Join ISIL
      • terrorist attacks TV5 in France (8-9 April)
      • View from Pentagon
      • Abadi Visits Washington (14-16 April)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    My eighteenth essay contains more than 240 links to news articles and documents, and 86 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  19. My essay for May 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Use of chlorine gas in Syria; possible incomplete declaration of chemical weapons in Syria
    • Syria:
      • death toll in Syria now over 229,000 (31 May)
      • training of FSA begins
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
                Turkey & Saudi Arabia agreed in March 2015 to help anti-Assad insurgents
                Obama's summit with Gulf nations (13-14 May)
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria: de Mistura began meetings on 5 May 2015
      • U.N. Security Council Resolutions 2139 and 2165
    • Iraq:
      • atrocities in Iraq
      • Islamic public relations problem
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq (including press briefings & press conferences, speeches)
      • ISIL abducted Assyrian Christians in Syria
      • Iraqi army liberates Tikrit
      • AUMF for anti-ISIL campaign stalled in U.S. Congress
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • ISIL captures Ramadi (17 May)
        • Fleeing Iraqi army abandons weapons, is gift to ISIL
        • U.S. Government reaction to rout in Ramadi (18 May)
        • Blame for rout in Ramadi
        • Iraq attempts to retake Ramadi (26-31 May)
      • Fighting continues at Baiji in Iraq
      • More false information from Iraqi government (13 May)
      • U.S. incursion in Syria (16 May)
      • ISIL threatens to acquire a nuclear weapon (23 May)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Terror attack in Garland, Texas
    My nineteenth essay contains more than 400 links to news articles and documents, and 101 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  20. My essay for June 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 234,000 (30 June)
      • U.S. training of FSA is piddling
      • We need to support the Kurds
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria: de Mistura began meetings on 5 May 2015
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Islamic public relations problem
        • my proposal
        • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq (including press briefings & press conferences, speeches)
      • ISIL abducted Assyrian Christians in Syria
      • Fighting continues in Baiji
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Fleeing Iraqi army abandons weapons, is gift to ISIL
        • Iraq attempts to retake Ramadi (26 May to 6 June)
        • Liberation of Ramadi postponed indefinitely
      • Counter-ISIL Coalition meets in Paris (2 June)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too!
      • U.S. Propaganda (3 June)
        • Truth: It will be a long war
      • Obama's press conference (8 June)
      • Obama throws more resources at Iraq (10 June)
      • Iraq is a failure: corruption, need to bypass Iraqi government
      • Return of residents to Tikrit (15 June)
      • ISIL again attacks Kobani (25-27 June)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    My twentieth essay contains more than 285 links to news articles and documents, and 102 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  21. My essay for July 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Use of chlorine gas by ISIL in Iraq
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 234,000 (30 June)
      • U.S. training of moderate rebels is piddling
      • We need to support the Kurds in Syria
      • Jan 2014: Turkey may have supplied weapons to ISIL in Syria
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
        • Turkey also attacks PKK
        • Turkey to Create Safe Zone in Syria
        • Arrests in Turkey
        • Foreign Reaction to Turkey
        • NATO meeting
        • U.S. Reaction to Turkey
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • de Mistura began meetings on 5 May 2015
        • third Moscow conference?
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Islamic public relations problem
        • my proposal
        • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failure
      • Send munitions directly to Kurds in Iraq?
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq (including press briefings & press conferences, speeches)
      • Fighting continues in Baiji
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too!
      • Obama's speech on 6 July
      • USA and Iran (15-18 July)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Terror Attack in Chattanooga USA

    My 21th essay contains more than 455 links to news articles and documents, and 121 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  22. My essay for August 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL allegedly uses mustard gas in Iraq and Syria
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 244,431 (31 August)
      • U.S. training of moderate rebels is piddling
      • New U.S. airstrike policy in Syria (31 July 2015)
      • U.S.-trained rebels dissipated
      • We need to support the Kurds in Syria
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
        • Overreaction by Turkey
        • Turkey to Create Safe Zone in Syria
        • Foreign Reaction to Turkey
        • U.S. Reaction to Turkey
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
              Obama called ISIL "junior varsity" terrorists in Jan 2014
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • de Mistura began meetings on 5 May 2015
        • third Moscow conference?
        • Syrian National Coalition fading?
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Islamic public relations problem
        • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
        • Report on Fall of Mosul
        • Reaction of Maliki to Report
      • Iraq is a failure (but reforms proposed on 11, 16 Aug 2015)
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Antiquities destroyed by ISIL in Syria
      • Fighting continues in Baiji in Iraq
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June)
    • Press releases from the Pentagon about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria

    My 22th essay contains more than 368 links to news articles and documents, and 109 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  23. My essay for September 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL allegedly uses mustard gas in Iraq (11 Aug)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 248,650 (30 Sep)
      • U.S. training of moderate rebels is piddling
      • First Batch of U.S.-trained rebels decimated
      • We need to support the Kurds in Syria
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
        • Overreaction by Turkey
        • Turkey to Create Safe Zone in Syria
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • de Mistura begins Working Groups
        • third Moscow conference?
        • Syrian National Coalition fading?
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Fighting continues in Baiji in Iraq
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June)
      • Russian military intervention in Syria
        • Russia creates office in Baghdad
        • Russia begins airstrikes in Syria (30 Sep)
      • Speeches at United Nations by Obama and Putin
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe

    My 23th essay contains more than 354 links to news articles and documents, and 123 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  24. My essay for October 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL allegedly uses mustard gas in Iraq (11 Aug)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 250,000 (16 Oct)
      • U.S. training of moderate rebels ends (9 Oct)
      • We need to support the Kurds in Syria
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
        • Overreaction by Turkey
        • Turkey to Create Safe Zone in Syria
      • Recognition that Assad is Not Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • de Mistura begins Working Groups
        • third Moscow conference?
        • meetings in Vienna
        • Syrian National Coalition fading?
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Fighting continues in Baiji in Iraq
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June)
      • Kurdish/U.S. Rescue Mission in Iraq (22 Oct 2015)
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
      • Russia vs. Free Syrian Army
      • Russia's Big Lies
      • Russian Soldiers in Syria?
      • De-conflicting Airstrikes in Syria (air safety)
      • Russian intervention in Iraq?
      • Russian/Syrian incursions in Turkey
      • USA Policy/Strategy in Iraq & Syria
        • Pentagon gives options to Obama
        • Obama decides: send "advisers" into Syria
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe

    My 24th essay contains more than 585 links to news articles and documents, and 142 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  25. My essay for November 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • ISIL used mustard at Marea Syria (21 Aug)
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL used mustard gas in Iraq (11 Aug)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 252,865 (31 Oct) and over 257,047 (30 Nov)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • de Mistura begins Working Groups
        • third Moscow conference?
        • meetings in Vienna
        • Syrian National Coalition fading?
      • United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq postpones liberation of Ramadi
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June)
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
      • Russian intervention in Iraq?
      • Turkey shoots down Russian airplane in Syria (24 Nov)
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic attacks in Paris (13 Nov)

    My 25th essay contains more than 368 links to news articles and documents, and 108 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  26. My essay for December 2015 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • OPCW fact-finding missions in Syria
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL used mustard gas in Iraq (11 Aug)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 262,000 (31 Dec)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • de Mistura begins Working Groups
        • third Moscow conference?
        • meeting of Syrian opposition (9-10 Dec)
        • third ISSG meeting (18 Dec)
        • Syrian National Coalition fading?
        • peace in Homs
        • peace in four towns (28 Dec)
      • United Nations Security Council Resolution 2253 (17 Dec)
      • United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254 (18 Dec)
      • United Nations Security Council Resolution 2258 (22 Dec)
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • Iraq rejects U.S. proposal for U.S. combat troops in Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq begins liberation of Ramadi on 22 Dec
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June)
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic attacks in Paris (13 Nov)
      • Terror Attack in San Bernardino, California (2 Dec)

    My 26th essay contains more than 375 links to news articles and documents, and 113 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  27. My essay for January 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • OPCW fact-finding missions in Syria
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL used mustard gas in Iraq (11 Aug 2015)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 266,600 (31 Jan)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • ISSG meetings
        • Syrian National Coalition fading?
      • Peace Conference in Geneva
        • de Mistura postpones negotiations to 29 January
        • Geneva talks begin (29 Jan)
      • U.N. Report by Secretary General
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Daily News about Syria & Iraq
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq begins liberation of Ramadi on 22 Dec
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June)
      • Anti-ISIL Coalition Meeting in Paris (20 Jan 2016)
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
      • airstrike in Mosul destroys ISIL cash (11 Jan)
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic attacks in Paris (13 Nov)
      • Muslim immigrants run amok in Cologne, Germany (31 Dec)
      • Terror Attack in Paris (7 Jan)

    My 27th essay contains more than 270 links to news articles and documents, and 113 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  28. My essay for February 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • OPCW fact-finding missions in Syria
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL used mustard gas in Iraq (11 Aug 2015)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 272,300 (29 Feb 2016)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Peace Conference in Geneva
        • "temporary pause" (3 Feb 2016)
        • Hijab misread U.N. Resolution 2254
        • ISSG meeting (11 Feb)
        • 12-26 Feb: ISSG Task Forces
        • Summary of Who is Misbehaving in Syria
        • Cessation of Hostilities (27-29 Feb)
        • Geneva talks postponed to 7 March (18, 26 Feb)
      • AFP Interview with Assad (11 Feb)
      • U.N. Reports
      • ISIL abducted Christians in Syria
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq began liberation of Ramadi on 22 Dec 2015
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June 2015)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June 2015)
      • Meeting of Defense Ministers of Anti-ISIL Coalition in Brussels (11 Feb 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
      • ISIL cash destroyed (17 Feb)
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe

    My 28th essay contains more than 287 links to news articles and documents, and 116 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  29. My essay for March 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • OPCW fact-finding missions in Syria
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL used mustard in Iraq (11 Aug 2015)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 273,500 (15 Mar 2016)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Nusra captures U.S.-supplied weapons in Syria
      • Turkey begins to fight against ISIL (24 July 2015)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva (1-13 Mar)
        • Geneva Negotiations Resume (14-24 Mar)
          • federalism for Syria?
          • Why wait for Assad to leave before fighting terrorist groups?
          • Assad rejects transitional governing body (30 Mar)
      • Cessation of Hostilities (also see table at end of document)
      • U.N. Reports
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • U.S. combat troops in Iraq
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq began liberation of Ramadi on 22 Dec 2015
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June 2015)
      • Abadi wants to liberate Mosul too! (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic terrorists attack Brussels (22 March)

    My 29th essay contains more than 385 links to news articles and documents, and 146 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  30. My essay for April 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • OPCW fact-finding missions in Syria
      • U.N. Security Council begins to ask who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      • ISIL used mustard in Iraq (11 Aug 2015)
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 278,000 (30 Apr 2016)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • U.S. troops in Syria
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
        • Geneva Negotiations Resume (13-27 April)
          • My suggestions for ending futility of talks in Geneva
      • daily reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
      • Russian airstrikes in Syria
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • U.S. combat troops in Iraq
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Iraq began liberation of Ramadi on 22 Dec 2015
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah sometime (begins 12 June 2015)
        • Hit
      • Future liberation of Mosul (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic terrorists attack Brussels (22 March 2016)

    My 30th essay contains more than 318 links to news articles and documents, and 166 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  31. My essay for May 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 283,200 (31 May 2016) and may be more than 400,000
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
        • But Syrian money system may be collapsing.
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Kerry's Plan B
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
        • Friends of Syria group meeting (9 May)
        • ISSG meeting (17 May)
        • No Geneva Negotiations in May
      • daily reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
      • U.N. Reports
        • war crimes prosecution?
        • U.N. Secretary General called for end to munitions flow into Syria
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • U.S. combat troops in Iraq
      • Iraqi army intends to liberate Anbar province
        • Ramadi liberated and uninhabitable
        • Iraq to liberate Fallujah
      • Future liberation of Mosul (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe

    My 31th essay contains more than 355 links to news articles and documents, and 180 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  32. My essay for June 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 288,000 (30 June 2016)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Embarrassment as Jordan steals and sells weapons
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
        • But Syrian money system may be collapsing.
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
        • No Geneva Negotiations in June
      • daily reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • No Criminal Prosecution of Iraqi Army Officers
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • U.S. combat troops in Iraq
      • Iraq liberated Fallujah (26 June 2016)
      • Future liberation of Mosul (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Massacre in Orlando, Florida (12 June)
      • Islamic terrorist kills policeman near Paris, France (13 June)

    My 32th essay contains more than 395 links to news articles and documents, and 152 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  33. My essay for July 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 292,800 (31 July 2016)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
        • No Geneva Negotiations in July
      • occasional reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • U.S. combat troops in Iraq
      • Future liberation of Mosul (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Nice, France (14 July);   Würzburg, Germany (18 July);   Munich, Germany (22 July);   Reutlingen, Germany (24 July);   Ansbach, Germany (24 July);   Murder of priest in Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray, France (26 July)

    My 33th essay contains more than 390 links to news articles and documents, and 156 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  34. My essay for August 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons: Third JIM Report
    • Syria:
      • Why foreign nations indifferent to Syrian civil war
      • Death toll in Syria now over 297,000 (31 Aug 2016)
      • Free Syrian Army is Leaderless since June 2015
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
        • Geneva negotiations failed
        • No ISSG meeting in June, July, August 2016
      • occasional reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
        • proposed 48-hour ceasefires in Aleppo
        • siege of Aleppo
        • bombing hospitals in Syria
        • surrender of Daraya
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • Future liberation of Mosul (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • attack in Charleroi, Belgium (6 August)
      • arrest in Canada (10 August)

    My 34th essay contains more than 288 links to news articles and documents, and 130 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary.

  35. My essay for September 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 301,000 (30 Sep 2016)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
        • New Russia/USA Agreements (9 Sep 2016)
        • U.N. Security Council meeting (21 Sep)
        • Syrian speech to U.N. General Assembly (24 Sep)
        • more meetings and negotiations 22-30 Sep 2016
        • Friends of Syria meeting in London (7 Sep)
        • ISSG meetings (20, 22 Sep)
      • daily reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
        • proposed 48-hour ceasefires in Aleppo
        • violations of new agreements in Syria (12-19 Sep)
        • continuing civil war in Syria (20-30 Sep)
        • bombing hospitals in Syria
        • surrender of Moadamiyeh
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • Future liberation of Mosul (begins 1 June 2015)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • arrests in Paris (4-8 Sep)
      • bombs in New Jersey & New York City (17-18 Sep)
      • minor attack in St. Cloud, Minnesota (17 Sep)

    My 35th essay contains 234 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 450 links to news articles and documents. This essay is longer than any of my previous essays, because it chronicles the creation of new agreements for Syria on 9 Sep, the prompt collapse of the new ceasefire in Syria, and the end of hope for resuming negotiations in Geneva.

  36. My essay for October 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 305,500 (31 Oct 2016)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Planning for Peace Conference in Geneva
      • occasional reports of violations of Cessation of Hostilities agreement
        • proposed 48-hour ceasefires in Aleppo
        • continuing civil war in Syria
        • bombing hospitals in Syria
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • arrest in Chemnitz (8-10 Oct)

    My 36th essay contains 158 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 370 links to news articles and documents.

  37. My essay for November 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • Who used chemical weapons in Syria?
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 309,500 (30 Nov 2016)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • death of U.S. Sailor in Syria
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Peace Negotiations in Geneva died in April 2016
        • No Meeting of ISSG in Oct/Nov 2016
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • abandon proposed 48-hour ceasefires in Aleppo
        • continuing civil war in Syria
        • bombing hospitals in Syria
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Iraq is a failed nation
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Attack at Ohio State University (28 Nov)

    My 37th essay contains 122 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 240 links to news articles and documents.

  38. My essay for December 2016 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • Who used chemical weapons in Syria?
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 312,600 (31 Dec 2016)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Peace Negotiations in Geneva died in April 2016
        • Negotiations between Russia & USA about Syria
        • U.N. Security Council fails again (5, 8 Dec)
        • U.N. General Assembly Resolution 71/130 on Syria (9 Dec)
        • Ministerial Meeting in Paris (10 Dec)
        • U.N. Security Council Resolution 2328 (19 Dec)
        • U.N. General Assembly Resolution 71/248 on Syria (21 Dec)
        • U.N. Security Council Resolution 2336 (31 Dec)
        • Resumption of Intra-Syrian Negotiations?
        • No Meeting of ISSG in Oct/Nov/Dec 2016
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Insurgents Withdraw From Aleppo City (13-22 Dec)
        • Continuing civil war (23-29 Dec)
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • bombing hospitals in Syria
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Press releases from U.S. Central Command about U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • attack on Berlin Christmas market (19 Dec)
      • arrests in Australia (23 Dec)

    My 38th essay contains 171 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 352 links to news articles and documents.

  39. My essay for January 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 314,600 (31 Jan 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • Peace Negotiations in Geneva died in April 2016
        • Failed Negotiations in Astana (23-24 Jan 2017)
        • Resumption of Intra-Syrian Negotiations on 20 Feb ?
        • No Meeting of ISSG since Sep 2016
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • Press Briefings by de Mistura and Egeland
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL

    My 39th essay contains 81 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 120 links to news articles and documents.

  40. My essay for February 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 317,000 (28 Feb 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016
        • Failed Negotiations in Astana (15-16 Feb 2017)
        • HNC Faltering?
        • Planned Resumption of Intra-Syrian Negotiations on , 23 Feb ?
        • Negotiations in Geneva (23-28 Feb)
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • Press Briefings by de Mistura or Egeland on humanitarian aid
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Egyptian brings machete to Louvre (3 Feb)

    My 40th essay contains 86 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 135 links to news articles and documents.

  41. My essay for March 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 323,000 (31 Mar 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • U.S. troops in Syria
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Failed Negotiations in Astana (14-15 Mar 2017)
        • Futile Negotiations in Geneva
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • No Press Briefings by de Mistura or Egeland on humanitarian aid
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic terrorist dies at Orly airport (18 Mar 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist attacks U.K. Parliament (22 Mar 2017)

    My 41th essay contains 104 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 173 links to news articles and documents.

  42. My essay for April 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • Idlib province on 4 April 2017 and U.S. retaliation
      • Who used chemical weapons in Syria?
      •       Failure of Russia to Influence Assad
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 326,000 (30 April 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • U.S. troops in Syria
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Failed Negotiations in Astana
        • No Negotiations in Geneva
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • Press Briefings by de Mistura or Egeland on humanitarian aid
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic terrorist St. Petersburg subway (3 April 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist Stockholm (7 April 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist Paris (20 April 2017)

    My 42th essay contains 101 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 230 links to news articles and documents.

  43. My essay for May 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 328,000 (31 May 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • U.S. troops in Syria
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Negotiations in Astana (3-4 May)
        • Negotiations in Geneva (16-19 May)
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • Press Briefings by de Mistura or Egeland on humanitarian aid (11 May)
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic bombing in Manchester England (22 May 2017)

    My 43th essay contains 91 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 145 links to news articles and documents.

  44. My essay for June 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 330,000 (30 June 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • U.S. troops in Syria
      • Isolation of Qatar
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Negotiations in Astana (no meeting in June)
        • Negotiations in Geneva (no meeting in June)
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • Press Briefings by Egeland on humanitarian aid (15 June)
      • U.N. Reports
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Liberation of Mosul (began 17 Oct 2016)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic terrorism in London, England (3 June 2017)
      • minor Islamic terrorism: on 6 June an Algerian graduate student outside the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, on 19 June an Islamic car bomb in Paris, on 20 June 2017 an Islamic suicide bomber was killed in Brussels Central railroad station, and on 21 June 2017 an Islamic terrorist from Tunisia stabbed a policeman in the neck at the airport in Flint, Michigan.

    My 44th essay contains 94 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 165 links to news articles and documents.

  45. My essay for July 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 333,000 (31 July 2017)
      • Turkey is an ally from Hell
      • U.S. troops in Syria
      • Isolation of Qatar (began 5 June 2017)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Negotiations in Astana (4-5 July 2017)
        • Negotiations in Geneva (10-14 July 2017)
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • No Press Briefing by Egeland on humanitarian aid
      • U.N. Reports
        • war crimes prosecution?
        • U.N. General Assembly Resolution 71/248
    • Iraq:
      • Atrocities in Iraq
      • Liberation of Mosul (10 July 2017)
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism and migration in Europe
      • Islamic terrorist in Hamburg, Germany (28 July 2017)

    My 45th essay contains 88 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 100 links to news articles and documents.

  46. My essay for August/September 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 335,600 (31 Aug)
      • Death toll in Syria now over 338,700 (30 Sep 2017)
      • Recognition that Assad is Winning the Civil War
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Negotiations in Astana (14-15 Sep 2017)
        • No Negotiations in Geneva
        • Friends of Syria (18 Sep 2017)
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Nationwide ceasefire in Syria (begins 30 Dec 2016)
        • Press Briefings on humanitarian aid
      • U.N. Reports
        • war crimes prosecution?
        • Carla del Ponte resigned (6 Aug 2017)
        • U.N. General Assembly Resolution 71/248
    • Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism in Europe
      • Islamic terrorist in Paris (9 August 2017)
      • Islamic terrorists in Barcelona (17 August 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist in Brussels (25 August 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist in London (15 Sep 2017)

    My 46th essay contains 106 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 170 links to news articles and documents.

  47. My essay for October/November/December 2017 chronicled the history of:
    • Chemical Weapons
      • Russia vetoes renewal of JIM
    • Syria:
      • Death toll in Syria now over 342,000 (31 Oct)
      • Death toll in Syria now over 344,500 (30 Nov 2017)
      • Death toll in Syria now over 346,500 (31 Dec 2017)
      • Peace Negotiations for Syria:
        • Future of Assad must be decided by Syrians
        • History of Negotiations in Geneva during 2016-2017
        • Negotiations in Astana (30-31 Oct, 21-22 Dec)
        • Planning for Negotiations in Geneva on 28 Nov 2017
        • Negotiations in Geneva (28 Nov to 14 Dec 2017)
        • Meeting in Riyadh (22-24 Nov)
        • Planning for Syrian People's Congress (29-30 Jan 2018?)
      • occasional reports of continuing civil war in Syria
        • Continuing civil war in Syria
        • Press Briefings on humanitarian aid
      • U.N. Reports
        • war crimes prosecution?
        • U.N. General Assembly Resolution 71/248
    • Iraq
    • Islamic public relations problem
      • Need to kill ideology of Islamic terrorism
    • ISIL is not defeated
      • Cost of U.S. war against ISIL
    • Islamic terrorism in Europe
      • Islamic terrorist in London (15 Sep 2017)
      • Islamic terrorists in Canada and France (30 Sep/1 Oct 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist in New York City (31 Oct 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist in New York City (11 Dec 2017)
      • Islamic terrorist in Harrisburg Pennsylvania (22 Dec 2017)

    My 47th essay contains 137 pages of facts, quotations, and my commentary, and more than 275 links to news articles and documents.



During 27 May to 10 June 2014, I revisited the topic of why the Geneva2 negotiations failed during Jan/Feb 2014 and wrote a 20-page review that summarized what was in my first eight essays and added some new information. The "transitional governing body" (TGB) mentioned in the Geneva1 Communiqué is flawed: (1) no one from Syria attended the Geneva1 meeting and (2) the situation in Syria changed before the negotiations began, so we no longer need a transitional government in Syria. I also discuss the problems in finding a suitable political opposition to negotiate with the lawful government of Assad. I conclude that the Syrian National Coalition is unworthy to lead Syria, but in 2014 there was no other acceptable political opposition to Assad.

Since July 2011, President Obama and two U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton and John Kerry, have been declaring that Assad had lost his legitimacy to lead Syria. My document collects more than thirty quotations of their dogma about Assad. In mid-2013, when Islamic terrorists hijacked the Syrian civil war, the USA could not partner with Assad in fighting Islamic terrorism, because of this dogma.

My essays for August and September 2014 give a contemporary account of how and why the USA became involved in wars in Iraq and Syria that were initially expected to persist at least until 2017, and possibly beyond the year 2035.

Beginning with my essay for June 2016, I tersely discuss how the U.S. war against Islamic terrorism has caused ISIL to encourage or sponsor more attacks in Western Europe and the USA. The U.S. war against Islamic terrorism began in the year 2001, and after spending many tens of billions of dollars, we are now less safe than before. This should be an immense scandal.

Links to Documents on Syria

To assist students, I provide links to some difficult-to-find documents on the Syrian civil war.

Table of Contents
  • Links to Friends of the Syrian People Communiqués
  • Links to Coalition Against ISIL Communiqués
  • Links to U.N. General Assembly documents
  • Links to U.N. Security Council documents
  • Links to Geneva Negotiations documents
  • Links to documents on Chemical Weapons in Syria
  • Links to U.N. Reports on Human Rights in Syria
I have posted copies of some of the public-domain (i.e., noncopyrighted) historical documents at my personal website,   . (In April 2015, when I was revising this collection of links, I noticed that webmasters at government and U.N. websites had already deleted some historical documents from the years 2012 and 2013. The United Nations website was unable to download documents to readers from 16 May 2014 until January 2015, which was an additional reason to post copies of U.N. documents elsewhere.)

Friends of the Syrian People

Hillary Clinton, then the U.S. Secretary of State, created the "Friends of the Syrian People" — also known as "Friends of Syria" — which had one-day meetings of foreign ministers that began on 24 Feb 2012. These foreign ministers are all opposed to the Assad regime in Syria.
  1. Chairman's Conclusions in Tunisia, 24 Feb 2012   (copy)   (copy)
  2. Chairman's Conclusions in Istanbul, 1 April 2012 (copy) (copy)
  3. Chairman's Conclusions in Paris, 6 July 2012   (copy)
  4. Chairman's Conclusions in Marrakech, Morocco, 12 Dec 2012 (copy at rbs0.com)
  5. Communiqué in Rome, 28 Feb 2013
  6. Working Group on Sanctions Communiqué in Ottawa, 25 June 2013   (PDF)
  7. Chairman's Statement in New York City, 26 Sep 2013 (on sidelines of a United Nations General Assembly meeting)
The Friends of the Syrian People "Core Group" of eleven nations — Egypt, France, Germany, Italy, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the USA — became known as the "London11" at a meeting in London on 22 Oct 2013. At the end of each one-day meeting, a Communiqué was issued, which I have downloaded, edited to make a smaller HTML file (while accurately preserving all text of the Communiqué), and posted at my website, :
  1. Core Group Statement in Istanbul, 20 April 2013, copy at rbs0.com
  2. Core Group Statement in Amman, Jordan on 22 May 2013, copy at rbs0.com
  3. Core Group Communiqué in Doha, Qatar on 22 June 2013, copy at rbs0.com
  4. London-11 Communiqué in London on 22 Oct 2013, copy at rbs0.com
  5. London-11 Communiqué in Paris on 12 Jan 2014, copy at rbs0.com
  6. London-11 Communiqué in London on 15 May 2014, copy at rbs0.com
  7. Friends of Syria Ministerial Communiqué in New York City on 25 Sep 2014, copy at rbs0.com
  8. London-11 Communiqué in London on 10 Nov 2014, copy at rbs0.com
  9. Statement by Jean-Marc Ayrault on the meeting in Paris on 9 May 2016, copy at rbs0.com.

  10. Friends of Syria meeting in London on 7 Sep 2016 has no communiqué. Copy of 25-page HNC plan for political transition is at RiadHijab.com.   There is another copy posted at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, where the Friends of Syria meeting was held. The Institute also posted a copy of the slides shown by Riad Hijab during his presentation.

  11. The Friends of Syria met in New York City on 18 Sep 2017, on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly meeting. Joint Statement.   Copy at:


Coalition Against ISIL (beginning Sep 2014)

  1. Kerry/Hagel statement sidelines of NATO meeting (5 Sep 2014)

  2. Jeddah Communiqué (11 Sep 2014), copy at rbs0.com

  3. "International Conference on Peace and Security in Iraq," Paris Communiqué (15 Sep 2014), copy at rbs0.com

  4. Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting, Brussels, (3 Dec 2014),   copy at rbs0.com

  5. Counter-ISIL Coalition meeting in London (22 Jan 2015), U.K. press release, copy at rbs0.com

  6. Small Group meeting in Jordan (8 April 2015), Readout.

  7. Counter-ISIL Coalition meeting in Paris (2 June 2015), Declaration of the Co-Chairs, copy at rbs0.com

  8. Small Group meeting in Québec City (30 July 2015), Canada.

  9. "Statement by the Members of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL: The Coalition at One Year," Sixth Ministerial Meeting of the Global Counterterrorism Forum in New York City, U.S. State Dept, 28 Sep 2015.

  10. "Leaders' Summit on Countering ISIL and Violent Extremism," White House, 29 Sep 2015.

  11. Small Group meeting in Belgium (4 November 2015), U.S. State Dept.

  12. Meeting of Defense Ministers of Australia, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the USA in Paris (20 Jan 2016). Joint Statement at USA;   Netherlands;   Australia.

  13. Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Small Group of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL in Rome (2 Feb 2016). Statement at U.S. State Dept.

  14. Meeting of 28 Defense Ministers in Brussels (11 Feb 2016). Statement at rbs0.com

  15. Meeting of Small Group of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL in Kuwait (27 April 2016). Statement at U.S. State Dept.

  16. "Plenary Meeting of the Global Coalition to Counter-ISIL," in Washington, DC, (10 June 2016). Statement at U.S. State Dept.

  17. "Joint Statement by Foreign and Defense Ministers of the Expanded Small Group of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL/Daesh," in Washington, DC, (21 July 2016). Statement at U.S. State Dept.

  18. "High-level meeting for the stabilization of Mosul — Co-chairs’ conclusions (October 20, 2016)," Statement at France.

  19. "Meeting of the Small Group of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL in [Berlin] Germany," (17 Nov 2016) Statement at U.S. State Dept.

  20. "Plenary Meeting of the Global Coalition to Counter-ISIL," (28 Nov 2016) Statement at U.S. State Dept.

  21. "Statement by Ministers of the Global Coalition: Meeting on the Defeat of ISIS," (22 Mar 2017) Statement.

  22. "Readout of the Meeting of the Small Group of the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS in Jordan," (15 Nov 2017) U.S. State Dept.


Links to U.N. General Assembly documents

United Nations General Assembly Resolutions are nonbinding, and generally insignificant. Here are the General Assembly Resolutions on the Syrian civil war, as of 23 Dec 2016:
  1. Resolution A/RES/66/176 (19 Dec 2011).
  2. Resolution A/RES/66/253A (16 Feb 2012).
  3. Resolution A/RES/66/253B (3 Aug 2012).
  4. Resolution A/RES/67/183 (20 Dec 2012).
  5. Resolution A/RES/67/262 (15 May 2013).
  6. Resolution A/RES/68/182 (18 Dec 2013).
  7. Resolution A/RES/69/189 (18 Dec 2014).
  8. Resolution A/RES/70/234 (23 Dec 2015).
  9. Resolution A/RES/71/130 futile attempt to end Syrian civil war (9 Dec 2016).
  10. Resolution A/RES/71/203 (19 Dec 2016).
  11. Resolution A/RES/71/248 investigation of war crimes (21 Dec 2016).

Links to U.N. Security Council documents

United Nations Security Council Resolutions on Syria:
  1. Resolution S/RES/2042, supporting Kofi Annan's 6-point plan (14 April 2012).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  2. Resolution S/RES/2043, deploys U.N. observers in Syria (21 April 2012).

  3. Resolution S/RES/2059, renews U.N. mission in Syria for 30 days (20 July 2012).

    • Lavrov/Kerry agreement, Framework of 14 Sep 2013, which led to UNSC Resolution 2118.   Copy at rbs0.com.
  4. Resolution S/RES/2118, for destruction of chemical weapons (27 Sep 2013).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  5. Resolution S/RES/2139, for humanitarian aid in Syria (22 Feb 2014).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  6. Resolution S/RES/2165, repairs defects in Resolution 2139 (14 July 2014).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  7. Resolution S/RES/2170, condemns ISIL & Al-Nusra Front (15 Aug 2014).

  8. Resolution S/RES/2175, protection of civilians in armed conflict, etc. (29 Aug 2014).

  9. Resolution S/RES/2178, condemns ISIL and Nusra Front (24 Sep 2014).

  10. Resolution S/RES/2191, renews humanitarian aid under Resolution 2165 (17 Dec 2014).

  11. Resolution S/RES/2199, condemns sale of oil by ISIL and Nusra (12 Feb 2015).

  12. Resolution S/RES/2209, chlorine gas in Syria (6 Mar 2015).

  13. Resolution S/RES/2235, Asks who released chemical weapons in Syria? (7 Aug 2015).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  14. Resolution S/RES/2249, Calls on all nations to "take all necessary measures" to fight against ISIL. (20 Nov 2015).

  15. Resolution S/RES/2253, ISIL & Al-Qaida Sanctions (17 Dec 2015).

  16. Resolution S/RES/2254, endorses ISSG (18 Dec 2015).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  17. Resolution S/RES/2258, renews humanitarian aid under Resolution 2165 (22 Dec 2015).

  18. Resolution S/RES/2268, endorses Russia/USA draft cessation of hostilities agreement (26 Feb 2016).   Copy at rbs0.com.

  19. Resolution S/RES/2328, sends U.N. observers to Aleppo (19 Dec 2016).

  20. Resolution S/RES/2332, renews humanitarian aid under Resolution 2165 (21 Dec 2016).

  21. Resolution S/RES/2336, welcomes Russian/Turkish negotiations (31 Dec 2016).

  22. Resolution S/RES/2393, renews humanitarian aid to Syria (19 Dec 2017).

United Nations Security Council Presidential Statements are legally nonbinding. Statements are issued when there is a strong consensus, but one permanent member vetoes a draft resolution. Other times a Statement is issued to express a consensus when no one needs to be commanded to do something. Here are some of the Presidential Statements on Syria:
  1. S/PRST/2011/16 (3 Aug 2011).

  2. S/PRST/2012/6 (21 March 2012).