Skip to content

Barbara Nadel Bibliography Apa


Tom, A. C. & Tversky, B. (2012). Remembering routes: Streets and landmarks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 182-193. 



Klingner, J., Tversky, B., and Hanrahan, P. (2011).  Effects of visual and verbal presentation on cognitive load in vigilance, memory, and arithmetic tasks. Psychophysiology, 48, 323-332. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01069.x


Kessell, A. M. and Tversky, B. (2011).Visualizing space, time, and agents: Production, performance, and preference. Cognitive Processing, 12, 43-52. DOI: 10.1007/s10339-010-0379-3.


Tversky, B. (2011).Tools for thought.  In B. Benedetti and V. Cook(Editors), Language and bilingual cognition. Pp. 131-139. New York: Psychology Press.
Hard, B. M., Recchia, G., and Tversky, B. (2011). The shape of action. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. doi: 10.1037/a0024310

Tversky, B. (2011). Visualizing thought.Topics in Cognitive Science, 3, 499-535.

Tversky, B. (2011).  Spatial thought, social thought.  In T. Schubert and A. Maass(Editors), Spatial schemas in social thought.  Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.



Tversky, B. (2010).Spaces of Thought. In W. Christensen, E. Schier, and J. Sutton (Eds.), ASCS09: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the AustralasianSociety for Cognitive Science (pp. 343-347). Sydney: Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science.DOI: 10.5096/ASCS200952

Tversky, B., Zacks, J. M., Morrison, J. B., and Hard, B. M. (2010).  Talking about events.  In E. Pederson, J. Bohnemeyer, R. Tomlin (Editors), Event representation in language and cognition. Pp. 216-227. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.


Nickerson, J.V., Tversky, B., Corter, J. E., Yu, L., and Mason, D. (2010). Thinking with networks. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland, August.

Yu, L., Nickerson, J.V. and Tversky, B., (2010). Discovering perceptions of personal social networks through diagrams. In A.K. Goel, M. Jamnik, and N. H. Narayanan (Editors).  Diagrammatic representation and inference. Pp. 352-354. Berlin: Springer.

Zahner, D., Nickerson, J., Tversky, B., Corter, J., and Ma, J. (2010).  A fix for fixation? Re-representing and abstracting as creative processes in the design of information systems. AIDEM, 24, 231-244.

Tversky, B. and Chou, J. Y. (2010). Creativity: Depth and breadth.  In Y. Nagai (Editor). Design creativity.  Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.



Tversky, B. and Hard, B. M. (2009). Embodied and disembodied cognition: Spatial perspective taking. Cognition, 110, 124-129.

Corter, J. E., Rho, Y-J, Zahner, D., Nickerson, J. V. and Tversky, B. (2009). Bugs and biases: Diagnosing misconceptions in the understanding of diagrams.  In Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.

Tversky, B., Heiser, J., Lee, P. and Daniel, M.-P. (2009). Explanations in gesture, diagram, and word. In K. R. Coventry, T. Tenbrink, & J. A. Bateman (Editors), Spatial Language and dialogue.  Pp. 119-131.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tversky, B. and Suwa, M. (2009).  Thinking with sketches.  In A. B. Markman and K.  L. Wood (Editors), Tools for innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nickerson, J.V., Zahner, D., Corter, J.E., Tversky, B., Yu, L., and Rho, Y.J. (2009). Matching mechanisms to situations through the wisdom of the crowd, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems.

Tversky, B., Zacks, J. M., and Hard, B. M. (2008).  The structure of experience.  In T. Shipley and J. M. Zacks (Editors), Understanding events. Pp. 436-464. Oxford:  Oxford University.
Nickerson, J V., Corter, J, Tversky, B, Zahner, D, and Rho, YJ: (2008). Diagrams as a tool in the design of information systems. In J. S. Gero and A. Goel (Eds.), Design computing and cognition '08. Pp. 103-122. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Tversky, B., Corter, J. E., Nickerson, J. V., Zahner, D., and Rho, Y. J. (2008).  Transforming descriptions and diagrams to sketches in information system design.  In G. Stapleton, J. Howse, and J. Lee (Editors), Theory and application of diagrams. Dordrecht, NL: Springer.
Nickerson, J. V., Corter, J. E., Tversky, B., Zahner, D., and Rho, Y-J. (2008).  The spatial nature of thought: Understanding information systems design through diagrams. In Boland, R., Limayem, M., and Pentland, B. (Editors).  Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Information Systems.
Kessell, A. M. and Tversky, B. (2008). Cognitive methods for visualizing space, time, and agents. In G. Stapleton, J. Howse, and J. Lee (Editors), Theory and application of diagrams. Dordrecht, NL: Springer.

Tversky, B.  (2008).  Spatial cognition:  Situated and embodied.  In P. Robbins and M. Aydede (Editor).  Cambridge handbook of situated cognition.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.


Corter, J. E., Nickerson, J.V., Tversky, B., Zahner, D., and Rho, Y.   (2008).  Using diagrams to design information systems.  In B. C. Love, K. McRae, and V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp.  2259--2264).  Austin, TX:  Cognitive Science Society. 

 2007:   Tversky, B., Agrawala, M., Heiser, J., Lee, P. U., Hanrahan, P., Phan, D., Stolte, C., Daniel, M.-P. (2007). Cognitive design principles for generating visualizations.  In G. Allen (Editor).  Applied spatial cognition:  From research to cognitive technology. Pp. 53-73. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tversky, B., Agrawala, M., Heiser, J., Lee, P. U., Hanrahan, P., Phan, D., Stolte, C., Daniele, M.-P. (2007). Cognitive design principles:  From cognitive models to computer models.  In L. Magnani (Editor).  Model-based reasoning in science and engineering. Pp. 1-20.  London:  King's College.

Tversky, B. (2007).  Gestalts of thought.  In L. Albertazzi (Editor), Visual thought.  Pp. 155-163. Amsterdam:  Benjamins.

Tversky, B., Heiser, J., MacKenzie, R., Lozano, S., and Morrison, J. B. (2007). Enriching animations. In R. Lowe and W. Schnotz, Learning with animation: Research implications for design.  NY: Cambridge University Press.

Tversky, B. (2007). Gestalts of thought.  In B. Choksi and C. Najaran (Editors).  Research trends in science, technology, and mathematics education.  Mumbai:  Macmillan India.   Kim, S., Yoon, M., Whang, S., Tversky, B., & Morrison, J. (2007). The effect of animation on comprehension and interest. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(3), 260-270.
2006:   Heiser, J. and Tversky, B. (2006). Arrows in comprehending and producing mechanical diagrams.  Cognitive Science, 30, 581-592.

Kessell, A. M. and Tversky, B. (2006). Using gestures and diagrams to think and talk about insight problems.Proceedings of the Meetings of the Cognitive Science Society.

Hard, B. M., Tversky, B., and Lang, D.  (2006). Making sense of abstract events: Building event schemas. Memory and Cognition, 34, 1221-1235.

Committee on Support for Thinking Spatially  (including Tversky, B.). (2006).  Learning to think spatially.  Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press.



Tversky, B.   (2005). Some ways images express and promote thought.  In P. Grialou, G. Longo, and M. Okada (Editors), Image and reasoning.  Pp. 15-29.  Tokyo:  Keio University Press.


Marsh, E. J., Tversky, B., and Hutson, M. (2005).How eyewitnesses talk about events:  Implications for memory.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1-14.


Tversky, B.  (2005).  Embodied and disembodied cognition.  In A. Berthoz, and R. Recht (Editors). Les Espaces de l'Homme.  Pp. 161-184.  Paris:  Odile Jacob.


Tversky, B.  (2005). Functional significance of visuospatial representations. In P. Shah & A. Miyake (Editors.), Handbook of higher-level visuospatial thinking.  Pp. 1-34. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.


Tversky, B. (2005). Visuospatial reasoning.  In K. Holyoak and R. Morrison (Editors).  The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning.  Pp. 209-241. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Zacks, J. M. and Tversky, B. (2005).  Multiple systems for spatial imagery: Transformations of objects and perspective.  Spatial Cognition and Computation, 5, 271-306.


Fontaine, S., Edwards, G., Tversky, B., and Denis, M. (2005). Expert and non-expert knowledge of loosely structured environments.  In D. Mark and T. Cohn (Editors), Spatial information theory: Cognitive and computational foundations.  Berlin: Springer.


Tversky, B.  (2005). Visualizing science. In. J. K. Gilbert (Editor).  Visualizations in science education.  Boston: Kluwer.


Tversky, B. (2005). How to get around by mind and body:  Spatial thought, spatial action. In A. Zilhao (Editor), Cognition, evolution, and rationality: A cognitive science for the XXIst century. London, Routledge.


Lee, P. U. and Tversky, B. (2005).  Interplay between visual and spatial:  The effects of landmark descriptions on comprehension of route/survey descriptions.  Spatial Cognition and Computation, 5 (2 &3), 163-185.


Tversky, B. (2005). Exploring parts and wholes.  In J. Gero and M. Maher (Editors), Creativity in design.  Pp. 1-16.  Sydney: Key Centre for Design Research.


Morrison, J. B. and Tversky, B. (2005). Bodies and their parts. Memory and Cognition, 33, 696-709.



Tversky, B., Zacks, J. M., and Lee, P. (2004). Events by hand and feet.  Spatial Cognition and Computation, 4, 5-14.


Tversky, B.  (2004).  Form and function.  In L. A. Carlson & E. van der Zee (Editors), Functional features in language and space: Insights from perception, categorization and development.  Pp. 331-347.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Dudokovic, N., Marsh, E., and Tversky, B. (2004). Telling a story or telling it straight:  The effects of entertaining versus accurate retellings on memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology,18, 125-143.


Heiser, J., Phan, D., Agrawala, M., Tversky, B., and Hanrahan, P. (2004).  Identification and validation of cognitive design principles for automated generation of assembly instructions.  Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces '04. Pp. 311-319 ACM.


Tversky, B. (2004). Narratives of space, time, and life.  Mind and Language, 19, 380-392.


Marsh, E. and Tversky, B. Spinning the stories of our lives. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 491-503.


Gero, J. S., Tversky, B. and Knight, T. (2004).  Visual and spatial reasoning in design III.  Sydney:  Key Centre for Design Research.Heiser, J., Tversky, B. and Silverman, M. (2004).  Sketches for and from collaboration.  In J. S. Gero, B. Tversky, and T. Knight (Editors). ).  Visual and spatial reasoning in design III.  Pp. 69-78.  Sydney:  Key Centre for Design Research.
Heiser, J. and Tversky, B. (2004).Characterizing diagrams produced by individuals and dyads.  In T. Barkowsky (Editor).   Spatial cognition:  Reasoning, action, interaction. Pp. 214-223. Berlin:  Springer-Verlag.
Tversky, B.  (2004). Semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of graphics.  In Holmqvist, K. and Ericsson, Y. (Eds).  Language and visualisation.  Pp. 141-158. Lund:  Lund University Press.



Tversky, B. (2003).  Structures of mental spaces:  How people think about space. Environment and Behavior, 35, 66-80.


Tversky, B. (2003) Some ways graphics communicate.  In K. Nyiri (Editor). Mobile communication:  Essays on cognition and community. Pp. 143-156. Wien: Passagen Verlag.


Mainwaring, S. D. Tversky, B., Ohgishi, M. and Schiano, D. J. (2003). Descriptions of simple spatial scenes in English and Japanese.  Spatial Cognition and Computation, 3, 3-42.


Tversky, B. (2003a). Navigating by mind and by body.  In C. Freksa, W. Brauer, C. Habel, K. F. Wender (Editors), Spatial Cognition III: Routes and Navigation, Human Memory and Learning, Spatial Representation and Spatial Reasoning.  Pp. 1-10.  Berlin: Springer Verlag.


Agrawala, M., Phan, D., Heiser, J., Haymaker, J. Klingner, J., Hanrahan, P., and Tversky, B. (2003).   Designing effective step-by-step assembly instructions.  In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2003.  ACM Transactions on Graphics, 929-937.


Tversky, B. (2003). Places:  Points, planes, paths, and portions.  In E. van der Zee and J. Slack (Editors), Representing direction in language and space.  Pp. 132-143. Oxford:  Oxford University Press.


Zacks, J. M. and Tversky, B. (2003).  Structuring information interfaces for procedural learning. Journal of Experimental Psycholoogy:  Applied, 9, 88-100.


Tversky, B., Suwa, M., Agrawala, M., Heiser, J., Stolte, C., Hanrahan, P.,Phan, D., Klingner, J., Daniel, M.-P., Lee, P. and Haymaker, J. (2003). Sketches for design and design of sketches.  In Ugo Lindemann ( Editor), Human behavior in design: Individuals, teams, tools.  Pp. 79-86.   Berlin:  Springer.


Martin, B. and Tversky, B. (2003). Segmenting ambiguous events.  In Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society Meetings.




Tversky, B. (2002). What do sketches say about thinking?  In T. Stahovic, J. Landay, and R. Davis (Editors), Proceedings of AAAI spring symposium on sketch understanding. Pp. Menlo Park, CA:  AAAI Press.


Suwa, M. and Tversky, B. (2002). External representations contribute to the dynamic construction of ideas.  In M. Hegarty, B. Meyer, and N. H. Narayanan (Editors), Diagrams 2002. Pp. 341-343. N. Y.: Springer-Verlag.


Emmorey, K., & Tversky, B. (2002). Spatial perspective in ASL. Sign Language and Linguistics, 5(1), 3-25.


Zacks, J. M., Ollinger, J. M, Sheridan, M., and Tversky, B. (2002).  A parametric study of mental spatial transformations of bodies.  Neuroimage, 16, 857-872.


Tversky, B., Morrison, J. B., & Zacks, J. (2002). On bodies and events. In A. Meltzoff & W. Prinz (Eds.) The imitative mind: Development, evolution and brain bases. Pp 221-232 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Tversky, B. (2002).  Some ways that graphics communicate.  In N. Allen (Editor), Words and images:  New steps in an old dance.  Pp. 57-74. Westport, CT:  Ablex.


Zacks, J. M., Mires, J., Tversky, B., & Hazeltine, E. (2002). Mental spatial transformations of objects and perspective. Spatial Cognition & Computation, 2, 315-322.


Heiser, J. and Tversky, B. (2002). Diagrams and descriptions in acquiring complex systems. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.  Erlbaum: Hillsdale, N.J.


Tversky, B., Morrison, J. B. & Betrancourt, M (2002). Animation: Can it facilitate?  International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 57, 247-262.



Byrant, D. J., Tversky, B., and Lanca, M. (2001). Retrieving spatial relations from observation and memory.  In E. van der Zee & U. Nikanne (Eds.), Conceptual structure and its interfaces with other modules of representation.  Pp. 116-139. Oxford:  Oxford University Press.


Tversky, B. (2001). Spatial schemas in depictions. In M. Gattis (Ed.), Spatial schemas and abstract thought.  Pp. 79-111. Cambridge: MIT Press.


Zacks, J., Tversky, B., &  Iyer, G. (2001). Perceiving, remembering and communicating structure in events.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 29-58.


Zacks, J., & Tversky, B. (2001). Event structure in perception and conception. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 3-21.


Zacks, J., Levy, E., Tversky, B., & Schiano, D. (2001). Graphs in use. In Anderson, M., Meyer, B., & Olivier, P. (Eds.), Diagrammatic Reasoning and Representation.  Pp. 187-206.  Berlin: Springer.


Suwa, M., & Tversky, B. (2001a). How do designers shift their focus of attention in their own sketches? In Anderson, M., Meyer, B., & Olivier, P. (Eds.), Diagrammatic Reasoning and Representation. Pp. 241-260. Berlin: Springer.


Morrison, J. B., and Tversky, B. (2001). The (In) effectiveness of animation in instruction.  In Jacko, J. and Sears, A. (Editors), Chi 001:  Extended Abstracts. Pp. 377-378.  Danvers, MA:  ACM.


Tversky, B. (2001).  Multiple mental spaces.  In J. S. Gero, B. Tversky, and T. Purcell (Editors).  Visual and spatial reasoning in design. Pp. 3-13.  Sydney, Australia:  Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition.


Suwa, M., Tversky, B. , Gero, J., and Purcell, T. (2001). Seeing into sketches:  Regrouping parts encourages new interpretations.  In J. S. Gero, B. Tversky, and T. Purcell (Editors).  Visual and spatial reasoning in design. Pp. 207-219.  Sydney, Australia:  Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition.


Suwa, M., & Tversky, B. (2001b). Constructive perception in design. In J. S. Gero & M. L. Maher (Eds.) Computational and cognitive models of creative design V. Pp.227-239. Sydney: University of Sydney.


Gero, J., Tversky, B., and Purcell, T. Editors. (2001).Visual and spatial reasoning in design.  Sydney, Australia:  Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition.


Betrancourt, M. Morrison, J. B., and Tversky, B. (2001). Les animations sont-elles vraiment plus efficaces?  Revue d'Intelligence Artificielle, 14, 149-166.



Betrancourt, M., & Tversky, B. (2000). Effects of computer animation on users' performance: A review. Le travail humain, 63, 311-329.


Tversky, B. (2000a). Levels and structure of cognitive mapping. In R. Kitchin & S. M. Freundschuh (Eds.). Cognitive mapping: Past, present and future. Pp.  London: Routledge.


Tversky, B. (2000b). Remembering space. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Handbook of Memory. Pp. 363-378.  New York: Oxford University Press.


Tversky, B. (2000c) Some ways that maps and graphs communicate.  In Freksa, C., Brauer, W., Habel, C and Wender, K. F.. (Eds.), Spatial  cognitiion II:  Integrating abstract theories, empirical studies, formal methods, and practical applications.  Pp. 72-79. N. Y.:  Springer.


Tversky, B. (2000d). What maps reveal about spatial thinking. Developmental Science, 3, 281- 282.


Tversky, B., & Marsh, E. (2000).Biased retellings of events yield biased memories.Cognitive Psychology, 40, 1-38.


Tversky, B, Zacks, J., Lee, P. U., & Heiser, J. (2000).Lines, blobs, crosses, and arrows: Diagrammatic communication with schematic figures.  In M. Anderson, P. Cheng, and V. Haarslev (Editors). Theory and application of diagrams.  Pp. 221-230. Berlin:  Springer.


Emmorey, K., Tversky, B., & Taylor, H. A.  (2000) Using space to describe space: Perspective in speech, sign, and gesture.  Journal of Spatial Cognition and Computation, 2, 157-180.


Tversky, B. (2000). Mental models. In A. E. Kazdin, (Editor.), Encyclopedia of   Psychology. Washington, DC: APA Press.


Zacks, J. M., Mires, J., Tversky, B., and Hazeltine, E.  (2000). Mental spatial  transformations of objects and perspective. Journal of Spatial Cognition and Computation, 2, 315-332.


Tversky, B. (2000). Spatial cognition in psychology. In R. Goldstone (Editor), Encyclopedia  of cognitive sciences.  London:  MacMillan.


Tversky, B. (2000). Mental models. In A. E. Kazdin, (Editor.), Encyclopedia of Psychology. Washington, DC: APA Press.

Bryant, D. J., & Tversky, B. (1999).Mental representations of spatial relations from diagrams and models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 25, 137-156.
Gero, J. S., & Tversky, B. (Editors). (1999). Visual and spatial reasoning in design. Sydney, Australia: Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition.
Mark, D. M., Freksa, C., Hirtle, S.C., Lloyd, R., and Tversky, B., (1999). Cognitive models of geographic space. International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 13(8), 747-774.
Mark, D. M., Smith, B., & Tversky, B. (1999). Ontology and geographic objects: An empirical study of cognitive categorization. In Freksa, C., & Mark, D. M. (Eds.). Spatial information theory: cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information science. (pp. 283-298). Berlin: Springer.
Tversky, B. (1999a). Talking about space. Contemporary Psychology, 44, 39-40.
Tversky, B. (1999b). What does drawing reveal about thinking? In J. S. Gero & B. Tversky (Eds.), Visual and spatial reasoning in design. (pp. 93-101). Sydney, Australia: Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition.
Tversky, B., Kim, J., & Cohen, A. (1999). Mental models of spatial relations and transformations from language. In C. Habel & G. Rickheit (Eds.), Mental models in discourse processing and reasoning.  Pp. 239-258. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Tversky, B., & Lee, P. U. (1999). Pictorial and verbal tools for conveying routes. In Freksa, C., & Mark, D. M. (Eds.). Spatial information theory: cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information science. (Pp. 51 64.) Berlin: Springer.
Tversky, B., Morrison, J. B., Franklin, N., & Bryant, D.J. (1999). Three spaces of spatial cognition. Professional Geographer, 51, 516-524.
Tversky, B. Lee, P. U., and Mainwaring, S. (1999).  Why speakers mix perspectives.Journal of Spatial Cognition and Computation, 1, 399-412.
Zacks, J., Rypma, B., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Tversky, B., & Glover, G. H., (1999). Imagined transformations of the body: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 37(9), 1029-1040.
Zacks, J., & Tversky, B. (1999). Bars and lines: A study of graphic communication. Memory and Cognition, 27, 1073-1079.


Tversky, B. (1998). Three dimensions of spatial cognition. In M. A. Conway, S. E. Gathercole, & C. Cornoldi (Eds.). Theories of memory II. (pp. 259-275). Hove, East Sussex: Psychological Press.
Tversky, B., & Lee, P. U. (1998). How space structures language. In C. Freksa, C. Habel, & K. F. Wender (Eds.), Spatial Cognition:  An interdisciplinary approach to representation and processing of spatial knowledge. (Pp. 157-175).  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Tversky, B., & Taylor, H. A. (1998). Acquiring spatial and temporal knowledge from language. In M. J. Egenhofer & R. G. Golledge (Eds.), Spatial and temporal reasoning. (pp. 155-166). N. Y.: Oxford.
Zacks, J., Levy, E., Tversky, B., & Schiano, D. J. (1998). Reading bar graphs: Effects of depth cues and graphical context.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 4, 119-138.


McBeath, M. K., Schiano, D. J., & Tversky, B. (1997). Three-dimensional bilateral symmetry bias in judgments of figural identity and orientation.Psychological Science, 8, 217-223.
Morrison, J. B., & Tversky, B. (1997). Body schemas. In M. G. Shafto & P. Langley (Eds.), Proceedings of the Meetings of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 525-529). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stein, N., Ornstein, P., Tversky, B., & Brainerd, C. (Eds.) (1997). Memory for emotion and everyday events. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Suwa, M., & Tversky, B. (1997). What architects and students perceive in their sketches: A protocol analysis. Design Studies, 18, 385-403.
Taylor, H. A., & Tversky, B. (1997). Indexing events in memory: Evidence for index preferences. Memory, 5, 509-542.
Tversky, B. (1997a). Memory for pictures, environments, maps, and graphs. In D. Payne & F. Conrad (Eds.), Intersections in basic and applied memory research. (pp. 257-277). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tversky, B. (1997b). Spatial constructions. In N. Stein, P. Ornstein, B. Tversky, & C. Brainerd (Eds.) Memory for emotion and everyday events. (pp. 181-208).  Mahwah, N. J.:  Erlbaum.
Tversky, B., & Schiano, D. (1997).Distortions in visual memory: A Reply to Engebretson and Huttenlocher's Comments on Tversky and Schiano. Journal of  Experimental Psychology: General, 126, 212-214.
Tversky, B., Taylor, H. A., & Mainwaring, S. (1997). Langage et perspective spatial(Spatial perspectives in language). In M. Denis (Ed.), Langage et cognition spatiale. (pp. 25-49). Paris: Masson.
Zacks, J., & Tversky, B. (1997). What's happening? The structure of event perception. Proceedings of the Meetings of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


Levy, E., Zacks, J., Tversky, B., & Schiano, D. (1996). Gratuitous graphics: Putting preferences in perspective. Human factors in computing systems: Conference proceedings (pp. 42-49). NY: ACM.

Suwa, M., & Tversky, B. (1996).What architects see in their sketches: Implications for design tools. Human factors in computing systems: Conference companion (pp. 191-192). NY: ACM.

Taylor, H. A., & Tversky, B. (1996). Perspective in spatial descriptions. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 371-391.

Tversky, B. (1996). Spatial perspective in descriptions. In P. Bloom, M. A. Peterson, L. Nadel, & M. Garrett (Eds.), Language and space. (pp. 463-491). Cambridge: MIT Press.


Bryant, D. J., Lanca, M., & Tversky, B. (1995). Spatial concepts and perception of physical and diagrammed scenes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 531-546.

Taylor, H. A., & Tversky, B. (1995). Assessing spatial representation using text. Geographical Systems, 2, 235-254.

Tversky, B. (1995a). Cognitive origins of graphic conventions. In F. T. Marchese (Ed.). Understanding images. (pp. 29-53). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Tversky, B. (1995b). Perception and cognition of 2D and 3D graphics. Human Factors in Computing Systems. (pp. 175). New York: ACM.

Tversky, B. (1995c). Some memory issues for the 90's. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 451-452.

Tversky, B. (1995d). Speculations on cognitive origins of graphic conventions. In G. Ben Shakhar & A. Lieblich (Eds.), Studies in psychology: In honor of S. Kugelmass. (pp. 300-321). Jerusalem: Magnes Press.


Tversky, B. (1994). Experiments in cognitive psychology: Version 2. (A Macintos Laboratory). Stanford: Office of Technology Licensing.

Tversky, B., Franklin, N., Taylor, H. A., & Bryant, D. J. (1994).Spatial mental models from descriptions. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45(9), 656-668.


Tversky, B. (1993a).Cognitive maps, cognitive collages, and spatial mental models. In A. U. Frank & I. Campari (Eds.), Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS. (pp. 14-24). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Tversky, B. (1993b). Some challenges for a computational account of imagery. Computational Intelligence, 9, 362-365.

Tversky, B., & Clark, H. H. (1993). Prepositions aren't places. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 16(2), 252-253.


Bryant, D. J., & Tversky, B. (1992). Assessing spatial frameworks with object and direction probes. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30, 29-32.

Bryant, D. J., Tversky, B., & Franklin, N. (1992).Internal and external spatial frameworks for representing described scenes. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 74-98.

Franklin, N., Tversky, B., & Coon, V. (1992). Switching points of view in spatial mental models acquired from text. Memory and Cognition, 20, 507-518.

Schiano, D., & Tversky, B. (1992). Structure and strategy in viewing simple graphs. Memory and Cognition, 20, 12-20.

Taylor, H. A., & Tversky, B. (1992a). Descriptions and depictions of environments. Memory and Cognition, 20, 483-496.

Taylor, H. A., & Tversky, B. (1992b). Spatial mental models derived from survey and route descriptions. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 261-282.

Tversky, B. (1992a). Distortions in cognitive maps. Geoforum, 23, 131-138.

Tversky, B. (1992b). Images before and behind the eye. Review of Images and Understanding, edited by H. Barlow, C. Blakemore & M. Weston-Smith. Contemporary Psychology, 37, 931-932.

Tversky, B. (1992c). Spatial mental representations. In N. H. Narayanan, B. Chandrasekaran, Y. Iwasaki, & H. Simon (Eds.), Reasoning with diagrammatic representations. Proceedings of the 1992 AAAI Spring Conference. AAAI Technical Report. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI.


Tversky, B. (1991a). Distortions in memory for visual displays. In S. R. Ellis (Ed.) &  M. K. Kaiser & A. Grunwald (Assoc. Eds.), Pictorial communication in virtual and real environments (pp. 61-75). London: Taylor and Francis.

Tversky, B. (1991b).Spatial mental models. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. Vol. 27 (pp. 109-145). N. Y.: Academic Press.

Tversky, B., & Hemenway, K. (1991). Parts and the basic level in natural categories and artificial stimuli: Comments on Murphy (1991). Memory and Cognition, 19, 439-442.

Tversky, B., Kugelmass, S., & Winter, A. (1991). Cross-cultural and developmental trends in graphic productions. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 515-557.


Franklin, N., & Tversky, B. (1990).Searching imagined environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 63-76.

Tversky, B. (1990a). Experiments in cognitive psychology (A Macintosh Laboratory). Stanford University: Office of Technology Licensing. Distinguished Software Award, EDUCOM/NCRIPTAL, 1990.

Tversky, B. (1990b). Where partonomies and taxonomies meet. In S. L. Tsohatzidis(Ed.), Meanings and prototypes: Studies on linguistic categorization (pp. 334-344). London: Routledge.


Tversky, B. (1989). Parts, partonomies, and taxonomies. Developmental Psychology,25, 983-995.

Tversky, B., & Schiano, D. (1989). Perceptual and conceptual factors in distortions in memory for maps and graphs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 387-398.

Tversky, B., & Tuchin, M. (1989). A reconciliation of evidence on eyewitness testimony: Comments on McCloskey & Zaragoza (1985). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 86-91.

Novick, L. R., & Tversky, B. (1987).Cognitive constraints on ordering operations: The case of geometric analogies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 50-67.

Tversky, B. (1985a). Categories and parts. In C. Craig & T. Givon (Eds.), Noun classes and categorization (pp. 63-75). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Tversky, B. (1985b). The development of taxonomic organization in named and pictured categories.Developmental Psychology, 21, 1111-1119.

Tversky, B., & Baratz, D. (1985). Memory for faces: Are caricatures better than photographs?Memory and Cognition, 13, 45-49.


Tversky, B. (1984). Citation classic. Current Contents, 16, 13, 18.

Tversky, B., & Hemenway, K. (1984). Objects, parts, and categories. Journal of  Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 169-193.

Freyd, J., & Tversky, B. (1983).The force of symmetry in form perception. American Journal of Psychology, 97, 109-126.

Tversky, B., & Hemenway, K. (1983). Categories of scenes. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 121-149.

Tversky, B. (1982). Rebirth of Learning.  Review of J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Contemporary Psychology, 27, 679-80.

Melkman, R., Tversky, B., & Baratz, D. (1981). Developmental trends in the use of perceptual and conceptual attributes in grouping, clustering and retrieval. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 31, 470-486.

Tversky, B. (1981). Distortions in memory for maps. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 407-433.


Tversky, B. (1979). Pictorial representations in adults and children. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 397-408.

Tversky, B., Havousha, S., & Poller, A. (1979). Noun-modifier order in a semantic verification task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 13, 31-34.

Tversky, B., & Teiffer, E. (1976). Development of strategies for recall and recognition. Developmental Psychology, 12, 406-410.

Tversky, B. (1975). Pictorial encoding in sentence-picture comparison. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 405-410.

Tversky, B., & Sherman, T. (1975). Picture-memory improves with longer on-time and off-time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 104 (2), 114-118.


Tversky, B. (1974a). Breadth of pictorial and verbal codes in memory.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Science Society, 4, 65-68.

Tversky, B. (1974b). Eye fixations in prediction of recognition and recall.Memory and Cognition, 2, 275-278.

Tversky, B. (1974c). Retrieval of pictorial and verbal stimulus codes. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Science Society, 4 (6), 580-581.

Tversky, B.(1973a). Encoding processes in recognition and recall. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 275-287.

Tversky, B. (1973b). Pictorial and verbal encoding in pre-school children. Developmental Psychology, 8, 149-153.

Tversky, B. (1969). Pictorial and verbal encoding in a short-term memory task. Perception & Psychophysics, 5, 225-233.

Dubbed the Donna Leon of Istanbul by critics, British writer Barbara Nadel has built a fascinating and deeply felt series of contemporary procedurals set in the Turkish capital and featuring the chain-smoking, brandy-swilling Inspector Ikmen, husband to a strict Muslim woman (who disapproves of his drinking) and loving father of numerous bairns. Her series debut, Belshazzar’s Daughter, finds Ikmen investigating a brutal murder in Istanbul’s rundown Jewish quarter. London’s Literary Review found that first novel an “intriguing, exotic whodunit,” and the London Independent also commended that series opener, writing, “Set in Istanbul, with a battered, cynical and credible Turkish cop, and a great blooming baroque plot (ditto talent).”

Since that first novel, Nadel, a former actress, has penned eleven more in the Inspector Ikmen series (as well as four wonderfully atmospheric World War II novels in a series featuring London undertaker Francis H). Her latest, Death by Design, is out this coming December in the U.S. Nadel, winner of the Crime Writers’ Association Silver Dagger for Deadly Web, is hard at work on number thirteen in her powerful series, and we wish her luck with that.

Barbara, I am so pleased to finally have you on Scene of the Crime. I have been a fan for years.

First, how did you come to write about Istanbul? I can remember being overwhelmed by my first view of Aghia Sophia as a young traveller, but the city is not exactly on everyone’s major tourist itinerary.

I have been visiting the city where my books are set, İstanbul, for thirty years. I went originally as a young tourist, fascinated by the Byzantine past, the backpacker present and most of all by the late Ottoman city of melancholy palaces and sensual, doomed monarchs. I was instantly captivated and have been slavishly returning to İstanbul ever since. I don’t live in the city, but I do visit often, usually twice a year.

What things about Istanbul make it unique and a good physical setting for your books?

İstanbul is labyrinthine. It exists on levels on, above and below the ground which reflect its present, its future and its past. For a crime novelist this means that modern crimes can sometimes be given a twist of something long gone and unfamiliar. In my fifth Inspector Çetin İkmen book Harem, I connect to the Byzantine past via the discovery of a body in the ancient Yerebatan Saray (Sunken Palace or cistern) of the Emperor Justinian. The book is in no way about the Byzantine era, it is modern. But the nature of İstanbul, as a city always connected to its past, makes it possible to bring in elements of times gone by into a contemporary context.

Did you consciously set out to use Istanbul as a “character” in your books, or did this grow naturally out of the initial story or stories?

When I wrote the first İkmen book (Belshazzar’s Daughter) I did so, in part, because I believed that İstanbul had been neglected by crime and mystery novelists for far too long. Before the first İkmen novel came out in 1999, there hadn’t been a huge amount of Istanbul fiction since Eric Ambler back in the 1950s. I did want to redress this but I also wanted to write stories too. I believe, and hope, that the location grows out of the story and the story is complimented by the location. That’s the aim.

How do you incorporate location in your fiction? Do you pay overt attention to it in certain scenes, or is it a background inspiration for you?

İstanbul is always there. It’s in the things my characters see and do, the things they eat and drink and in the uneven and chaotic roads that they travel. At times however, the location takes centre stage. When action is happening somewhere unusual, outré or significant the reader I believe, likes to know more. And so the profile of the background is raised. I may sometimes add some history or even a local legend to the description of the place. This is a conscious move on my part and one which I try to make relevant, exciting and definitely not distracting.

How does your protagonist, Çetin İkmen, interact with his surroundings? Is he a native, a blow-in, a reluctant or enthusiastic inhabitant, cynical about it, a booster? And conversely how does the setting affect your protagonist?

Çetin İkmen is a native Istanbullu, although like a lot of people in the city his ancestors came from elsewhere. In his case his father’s people came from the Anatolian region of Cappadocia while his mother was Albanian. He is an incredibly proud and faithful Istanbullu. He loves the city passionately and he sees the protection of it as very much a sacred duty. But he is realistic too. The traffic choked roads put his blood pressure up and the intense heat and humidity in high summer make him tetchy. İstanbul, like my own native city of London, is not an easy place. It is crowded, loud and fast and as much as it can enthral, it can also at times frustrate too. İkmen, like me, frequently opts to walk to wherever he wishes to go, not just to get a better view of the sights, but also the avoid the traffic.

Has there been any local reaction to your work?

My books are published in Turkish. They have been so for the last eight years. I’ve had generally good local reaction with great support from Turkish newspapers and periodicals. I’ve given lots of interviews. That said it has to be remembered that Turkish literary criticism is much more polite and less punitive than that in my native UK. That is not a criticism by me of anyone, it’s just a fact.

Of your Istanbul novels, do you have a favourite book or scene that focuses on the place? Could you quote a short passage or give an example of how the location figures in your novels?

I don’t think I actually have a favourite book or scene, as such. But this bit of description from the 8th İkmen book, A Passion for Killing, is I think a good example.

“After crossing the Galata Bridge, Constable Yıldız steered the car through the steep, narrow streets of Sultanahmet and then down onto the broad Kennedy Caddesi dual carriageway that would take them, ultimately, to the airport. Even in Sergeant Ayşe Farsakoğlu’s short lifetime, this area had changed enormously. Bordering on the Sea of Marmara, districts like Kumpaki and Yedikule had once been poor places where large families with haunted eyes lived in cramped and frequently insanitary accommodation. In more recent years however, this part of the city had been given a considerable face-life and, although the poor had still not disappeared completely, they had moved on. Now many of them lived in high rise blocks out by the airport. Apparently back in the 1970s when the airport had been called Yesilkoy, after the long-since absorbed village of that name, some of the outer suburbs near the airport had been quite chic. Inspector İkmen would talk at length about the beach at the district of Ataköy, which they were now passing, where back in the 1960s he and his young friends had played at emulating Sean Connery’s James Bond. The great Scottish actor had just been in the city at that time making From Russia with Love. Now Ataköy was famous only for its shopping mall, Galleria, with its little internal skating rink.”

Who are your favourite writers and do you feel that other writers influenced you in your use of the spirit of place in your novels?

I have so many favourite writers! But I think that in the context of spirit of place I have to say that my two favourites and probably my greatest influences too are Lawrence Durrell and Charles Dickens. Durrell I think taught me to look at the clear and yet also almost unknowable light of the eastern Mediterranean while Dickens encouraged my love of the left field and the unexpected. I feel that because of Dickens I have permission, as it were, to express the unusual.

What’s next for your protagonist?

The next İkmen book could and should prove to be harrowing. In it he is given the task of investigating a suspected honour killing. But was the pretty, vivacious girl who was cruelly set on fire in a modest flat in the İstanbul district of Beşiktaş really a victim of her own outraged family? İkmen enters a world of family honour and passion, of rampant profiteering and heavy drug addiction in order to find out the truth.

Barbara, thanks much for a wonderful and insightful trip to Istanbul.

For more on the author Barbara Nadel, see her group blog, International Crime Authors Reality Check.

Like this:



Posted in Interviews | Tagged Barbara Nadel, Death by Design, Inspector Çetin İkmen, Istanbul, Scene of the Crime, Turkey | 9 Comments