Both Reference Lists and Bibliographies are placed at the end of your essay, assignment or thesis (unless your lecturer has specified differently, which may be the case for theses). Citations (references) are then arranged alphabetically by author or responsible organisation, or where no author is given, by title. (If the first word is a definite/indefinite article it should be ignored, e.g. The Story of Art should be filed alphabetically under Story). Citations by the same author are then arranged chronologically, with the most recent first.
It is important you consult with your lecturer or Course Notes to determine whether a Reference List or Bibliography is required.
Reference List (Example)
About Jenny Holzer 2011, dvd, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California.
Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art2010, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 4 October.
Art Farmer 1978, Art, sound recording, Cadet Records, Chicago, Ill.
Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011, motion picture, British Film Institute, London.
Colli, MG 2009, Bilbao_6 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, photograph, viewed 4 January 2012, <http://www.flickr.com/photos/52355315@N08/5757476385/>.
Di Trocchio, P 2011, Manstyle : men + fashion, exhibition catalogue, 11 March-27 November, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Vic.
Eales, S (ed.) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.
Fujimoto, Tetsuo 1998, Work 98-1, Fibre art : Hemp cloth, polyester threads, Pellon backing and natural plant dyes Exhibited at: Textural Space exhibition, Surrey Institute of Art & Design, 27 Apr - 23 Jun 2001.
Google Earth 6.0. 2008. Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer, viewed 31 August 2011, <http://www.google.com/earth/index.html >.
Gorman, P 2001, The look: adventures in pop & rock fashion, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London.
Gough, P 2017, What makes art good or bad?, video recording, Youtube, viewed 17 July 2017,
Le Corbusier, c. 1950-1954, Notre-Dame du Haut, exterior, Ronchamp, France, viewed 12 January 2012, Oxford Art Online database.
Liebovitz, A 2002, Dancers: photographs by Annie Liebovitz, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
Melbourne Water 2012, Weekly water report 5 January 2012: Chart view Daily residential water use in Melbourne, Melbourne Water, Victoria, viewed 12 January 2012, <http://www.melbournewater.com.au/content/water_storages/report>.
Mojang 2009, Minecraft, video game, Xbox 360, Mojang, Sweden.
Nefertari with Isis, n.d. photograph, viewed 4 January 2012, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ankh_isis_nefertari.jpg>.
Sallowsky, M 2006, RMIT buildings - Brunswick campus, digital image, RMIT University, Melbourne, viewed 12 January 2012, <http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=218ujxd8tspl1>.
Turner, JMW 1812, Snow storm: Hannibal and army crossing the alps, Oil on canvas, 145×2360 mm, Turner Collection, Tate Gallery, Britain.
Ubisoft Entertainment 2012, Assassins creed III, computer program, Ubisoft Australia.
Reference list vs. bibliography
Reference lists (in MLA style called “lists of works cited”) contain a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites, etc.) that you have cited directly in a document. That means that if there are in-text citations for a source there is a reference list entry, and vice versa.
Bibliographies, on the other hand, contain all sources that you have used, whether they are directly cited or not. A bibliography includes sources that you have used to generate ideas or ‘read around’ a topic, but have not referred to directly in the body of the document.
Which to use
For most assignments at Massey University, you will be expected to provide only a reference list. If you have used any source in your assignment you are expected to say where you have used it by citing it directly.
Some assignments may require a reference list and a bibliography, or a bibliography in place of a reference list. If this is the case, you will be instructed to in your course materials. Some referencing styles (for example, Oxford style) always use a bibliography in place of a reference list. Some lecturers may use the term “bibliography” to mean a reference list, so if there is any uncertainty it's best to ask your lecturer.
Styles of reference list and bibliography
An annotated bibliography is a type of assignment that involves a list of sources, but also a summary and evaluation of each source's content and purpose. For more information, see annotated bibliography.
Books and other publications often distinguish between “selected” bibliographies and “full” bibliographies. Selected bibliographies only list a few of the most important works cited. Full bibliographies list every work cited and potentially other relevant sources. Again, you will be told directly if you need to do this.
Page authorised by Director, CTL
Last updated on 25 October, 2012